واژه نامه تخصصی دام و طیور
واژه نامه تخصصی دام و طیور
Livestock & poultry Glossary
گردآورنده: مزرعه آی قاصدک
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واژه نامه دام و طیور
گردآورنده: محمد حیدری ، علی اکبر حیدری
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abomasum. Fourth stomach or true stomach of the ruminant animal, in whichenzymatic digestion occurs.
abscess. Boil; localized collection of pus.
acidosis. Severe digestive upset from change in rumen bacteria.
acute infection. An infection or disease that has rapid onset and pronounced signsand symptoms.
afterbirth. Placental tissue attached to the uterus during gestation and expelled afterthe birth.
air cell. Air space usually found in the large end of an egg.
albumen. The white of the egg.
anemia. A deficiency in the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood, possibly caused byloss of blood or by certain disease conditions.
anestrus. The nonbreeding season; the state (for females) of being not in heat.
artificial insemination (AI). The process in which a technician puts semen from amale animal into the uterus of a female animal to create pregnancy.
auto-sexing. a breed in which male chicks are lighter than females.
Allantois. Respiratory and excretory organ of bird embryos prior to lung developmentand activation.
Ambient temperature. Actual outside temperature.
Amnion. A membranous sac enclosing and protecting the embryo that holds theamniotic fluid.
Androgen. A sex hormone produced in the testes and characterized by its ability tostimulate the development of sex characteristics in the male.
Antioxidant. Compounds that reduce free radicals in the body; also, compounds usedto prevent rancidity of fats or the destruction of fat-soluble vitamins.
Avian. Of or pertaining to birds.
AHVLA. Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency.
Air sacs. Parts of the respiratory system in fowl, which contains hollow bones and theavian lung. The air sacs function something like bellows.
Amylase. The enzyme secreted with saliva from the glands of the mouth to helplubricate the food and aid in its passage down the esophagus.
Ascites. A condition in which the bird grows so fast its immune system can’t keep up;it became a serious issue for a few years in the broiler chicken industry. Because the rate of bodily development is so rapid with the immunity rate lagging behind, the birds are susceptible to many ailments, the most obvious being sores on the legs and feet and breast blisters that are slow to heal.
Blackhead. Primarily a protozoan disease of turkeys, although it occasionally occursin chickens.
Air space. Gap between the outer and inner membranes of the eggshell.
As hatched. Young chickens not yet sexed.
Auto-sexing breed. Male and female chicks are different colours.
Avian influenza. Notifiable virus causing rapid death in birds, and potential infectionin humans.
Abomasum. The third compartment of the ruminant stomach; the compartmentwhere digestion takes place.
Abortion. Early (often spontaneous) termination of pregnancy.
Acre. A unit of measurement:4,840square yards or43,560square feet.
Action. The manner in which an animal moves its legs.
Acute. Any process occurring over a short period of time.
Afterbirth. The placenta and fetal membranes that are expelled after giving birth.
Ammonium chloride. A mineral salt fed to male sheep and goats to inhibit theformation of bladder and kidney stones.
Amnion. One of two fluid-filled membranes enclosing an unborn fetus.
Anestrus. The period of time when a female animal is not having estrous (heat) cycles.
Anthelmintic. A substance used to control or destroy internal parasites; a dewormer.
Antibodies. Circulating protein molecules that help neutralize disease organisms.
Antitoxin. An antibody capable of neutralizing a specific disease organism.
acidosis. Severe digestive upset from change in rumen bacteria—due to feeding toomuch grain or pH imbalance in sick baby calf due to dehydration.
anaphylactic shock. Serious allergic reaction; the animal collapses and goes intoshock.
anestrus. Period after calving in which the cow does not cycle.
antibody. Protein molecule in the blood that fights a specific disease.
antigen. Substance invading the body that stimulates creation of protective antibodiesin the bloodstream.
antiseptic. Chemical used to control bacterial growth.
antitoxin. Antibody that counteracts a bacterial toxin.
aspergillus. A type of mold that can be poisonous if eaten.
abortion. Loss of pregnancy before going full term.
aging. The time process involved causing a maturing or ripening of meat enzymesthat increase flavor and has a tenderizing effect.
aitch bone. The rump bone.
alternator. An electric generator for producing alternating current.
ampere. A measure of electrical current that indicates how many electrons are passingthrough a given point in the circuit.
annual. A plant that only survives for one growing season and does not overwinter.
anterior to. Toward the front of the carcass, or forward of.
average daily gain. Amount of weight that an animal gains each day.
acute. Having a severe and swift development, often measured in hours and endingin death or recovery; opposite of chronic.
agricultural lime. Calcium carbonate, used to condition chicken coop litter, althoughit also facilitates the generation and release of harmful ammonia fumes.
alternate host. Intermediate host.
amino acids, essential. Amino acids that must be furnished through diet.
amino acids, nonessential. Amino acids that are synthesized within the body.
antinutrient. Any natural compound in a feedstuff that interferes with the absorptionof nutrients.
antiserum. A blood serum containing antibodies against a specific antigen, injectedto treat or protect against a specific disease (plural: antisera).
arthritis. Any inflammation of a joint and surrounding tissue.
ascariasis. Infestation with roundworms.
ascites. An accumulation of fluid in the body cavity.
atrophy. To shrivel up or waste away.
ALLANTOIS. The membrane arising from an embryo’s gut that grows until it completelysurrounds the embryo. Its function is to provide the embryo with oxygen, expel carbon dioxide, deliver nutrients from the albumen and calcium from the shell, and collect body wastes.
ALL-IN ALL-OUT INCUBATION. Single-stage incubation.
AREA BROODER. A small area separated from a larger area for the purpose of confiningchicks close to heat, feed, and water.
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION. The phenomenon whereby an unfertilized egg developsan embryo. Also called parthenogenesis.
AUTOSEX. A straightbred variety or breed that displays clearly distinct sex-linkedcolor characteristics by which males may be easily distinguished from females at the time of hatch. The term autosexing was developed to differentiate sex-link purebreds from sex-link crossbreds.
ADGA. American Dairy Goat Association, the oldest and largest dairy goat registry inthe United States.
antitrypsin factor. A substance that prevents the enzyme trypsin in pancreatic juicefrom helping to break down proteins. Present in soybeans.
ash. The mineral matter of a feed; what is left after complete incineration of the organicmatter.
Balling gun. A device used to administer a bolus (a large pill).
bantam. A diminutive chicken about one-fourth the size of a regular chicken, somebreeds of which are distinct while others are miniatures of large breeds.
beak. The upper and lower mandibles of chickens and turkeys.
bean. A hard protuberance on the upper mandible of waterfowl.
beard. Feathers bunched under the beaks of some chicken breeds, such as the AntwerpBelgian, the Faverolle, and the Houdan; also coarse hairlike bristles growing from a turkey’s chest; also a clump of long hairs growing under a goat’s chin.
bedding. Straw, wood shavings, shredded paper, or any other material used to coverthe floor of an animal pen to absorb moisture and manure. Also called litter.
bevy. A flock of ducks.
bill. The upper and lower mandibles of waterfowl.
bleaching. The fading of color from the beak, shanks, and vent of a yellowskinnedlaying hen.
bloat. An excessive accumulation of gas in a ruminant’s rumen and reticulum, resultingin distension.
blood spot. Blood in an egg caused by a rupture of small blood vessels, usually at thetime of ovulation.
bloom. The moist, protective coating on a freshly laid egg that dries so fast you rarelysee it; also, peak condition in exhibition poultry.
blowout. Vent damage caused by laying an oversize egg.
body capacity. The internal dimensions of an animal’s body.
bolus. A large pill for animals; also, regurgitated food that has been chewed (cud) bya ruminant.
bovine. Pertaining to or derived from cattle.
bovine virus diarrhea (BVD). A viral disease that can cause abortion, diseased calves,or suppression of the immune system.
break up. To discourage a female bird from being broody.
breech. The buttocks; a birth in which the fetus is presented rear first.
breed. A group of animals with the same ancestry and characteristics.
breeder ration. A nutritious feed used to boost the reproductive ability of breedinganimals.
brisket. The front of a cow above the legs.
broiler. A young chicken grown for its tender meat. Also called a fryer.
brood. In poultry: to set on a nest of eggs until they hatch. Also, the resulting hatchlings,collectively. In bees: collectively, the immature stages of the honey bee, including eggs, larvae, and pupae.
brood chamber. A section of the hive used for brood rearing of honey bees.
brooder. A mechanical device used to imitate the warmth and protection a motherbird gives her chicks.
broody hen. A setting hen.
browse. Bushy or woody plants; to eat such plants.
brucellosis. A bacterial disease that causes abortion.
buck. A mature male goat or rabbit.
buck rag. A cloth rubbed onto a male goat and imbued with his odor and kept in aclosed container until it is exposed to a doe to observe her reaction to help determine if she’s in heat.
bull. An uncastrated male bovine of any age.
bummer. A lamb that has to be bottlefed because it is either an orphan or a lambwhose mother doesn’t produce enough milk for multiple lambs.
bunny. A affectionate term for rabbit. Also a baby rabbit; also called a kit.
burdizzo. A castrating device that crushes the spermatic cords to render a male animalsterile.
barring. stripes of two colors across a feather.
beard. feathers in a small clump under beak, e.g., Faverolles.
booted. having feathers on the legs and feet and including vulture hocks.
Beak. Upper and lower mandibles of chickens, peafowl, pheasants, turkeys, and so on.
Beak trimming. Removal of the upper and/or lower tips of the beak to preventcannibalism and improve feed efficiency.
Bits/Rings. Attachments for mandible to prevent cannibalism.
Blastoderm. The collective mass of cells of a fertilized ovum from which the embryodevelops.
Blastodisc. The germinal spot on the ovum from which the blastoderm develops afterthe ovum is fertilized by the sperm.
Blinders/Specks. Attachments for upper mandible to partially block vision. Used toprevent cannibalism.
Bread. The tuft of hair attached to the upper chest region.
Breast blister. Swollen, discolored area or sore in the area of the keel bone.
Brooder. Heat source for starting young birds.
Broodiness. Tendency toward the maternal instinct that causes females to set or wantto hatch eggs.
Bursa fabricious. A glandular organ located dorsally to the cloaca, important to theimmunology of the bird, which regresses as the bird matures.
Breed true. To produce a hatch in which the birds resemble the parents physically andgenetically.
Brooder. A structure used to start and rear young fowl; it can be anything froma cardboard box or plastic tub to an elaborate multi-tiered metal frame structure complete with attached waterers, feeders, and manure pans.
Broody. Describes the behavior and attitude of a hen obeying the biological instinctto reproduce.
Bumblefoot. A bacterial infection that results from bruising to the foot of the bird.
Breed standards. Defined characteristics set down by the breed society.