فرهنگ حیوانات

                                           فرهنگ حیوانات

 

 

 

aardavakخوک خاکی                                                          

aardvarks are mammals with long snouts that live in Africa. using their sharp claws, aardvarks dig into anthills and termite mounds. then they lick up the ants and termites with their sticky tongues

 

خوک های خاکی پستاندارانی هستند با پوزه دراز که در آفریقا زندگی می کنند. آنها از پنجه های تیز خود استفاده کرده ، و تپه های کوچک دور سوراخ مورچه ها و موریانه ها را می کنند. سپس مورچه ها و موریانه ها را با زبان چسبنده ی خود می لیسند.

 

 

alligator/"ælIgeItə(r)/

 

تمساح آمریکایی(در آمریکا و چین یافت می شود و پوزه اش از پوزه ی تمساح آفریقایی کوتاهتر است و هنگام بسته بودن دهان دندانهایش نمایان

نیست)

 

alligator is a large semiaquatic reptile similar to a crocodile but with a broader and shorter head, native to theAmericasandChina

 

تمساح آمریکایی خزنده بزرگ نیمه آبزی شبیه تمساح است ولی سری کوتاه و پهن تردارد. این حیوان بومی آمریکا و چین است

 

either of two species of long-snouted reptiles constituting the genus Alligator (family Alligatoridae, order Crocodilia).
Alligators differ from crocodiles in snout shape and tooth placement. living in large bodies of water such as lakes, swamps, and rivers, these lizardlike carnivores use their powerful tail for defense and swimming. the eyes, ears, and nostrils, located on top of the long head, project above the water’s surface. alligators dig burrows in which they shelter from danger and hibernate in cold weather. the once-endangered American alligator of the southeastern U.S. may grow to 19 ft (5.7 m) long but usually ranges from 6 to 12 ft (1.8 to 3.7 m) long. the Chinese alligator of the Chang (Yangtze) River region, which grows to 5 ft (1.5 m), is critically endangered

 

هر یک از دو گونه ی خزنده ی بلند پوزه که تشکیل گونه ی تمساح آمریکایی را می دهند. تمساح های آمریکایی با کروکودیل از نظر شکل پوزه و قرارگیری دندان ها فرق دارند. در آب ها مثل دریاچه ها ، باتلاق ها ، و رودخانه ها ، زندگی می کنند ، این جانوران گوشتخوار مارمولک مانند از دم قدرتمند خود برای دفاع و شنا استفاده می کنند. چشم ها ، گوش ها ، و سوراخ های بینی ، بر روی سر بلندشان ، در بالای سطح آب به بیرون زده است. تمساح های آمریکایی سوراخ هایی را می کنند که در آن ها از خطر پناه گرفته و در هوای سرد به خواب زمستانی می روند. یک گونه تمساح آمریکایی ناحیه ی جنوب شرقی ایالات متحده که در معرض انقراض است می تواند تا طول 19 فوت(5.7 متر) رشد کند اما معمولا طول آنها بین 6 تا 12 فوت(1.8 تا 3.7 متر) می باشد. تمساح آمریکایی چینی ناحیه ی رودخانه ی چانگ ، که تا 5 فوت (1.5 متر) رشد می کند در حال انقراض می باشد.

what is the difference between an alligator and a crocodile? that’s kind of a trick question. "crocodile" is a common name for an order, or large group, of animals called crocodilians. alligators, caimans, and gavials are all crocodilians-but so are crocodiles.

how are they different?

one way to tell the difference between alligators and crocodiles is by looking at their snouts. alligators and their close relative, the caiman, have broad, rounded snouts. crocodiles have longer, sharper snouts that are shaped like triangles.

کروکودیل و تمساح آمریکایی چقدر اختلاف دارند؟

یک راه برای پاسخ اختلاف بین کروکودیل ها و تمساح های آمریکایی با نگاه کردن به پوزه ی آنها است. تمساح آمریکایی و جنس نزدیک آن ، کی من ، پوزه ی پهن و گرد مانند دارند. کروکودیل ها پوزه بلند و نوک تیزی دارند که شبیه مثلث است.

crocodiles have a tooth on each side of their lower jaw that sticks up when their mouth is closed. alligators do not show any teeth when their mouths are closed.

کروکودیل ها در هر دو سمت آرواره پایینی خود دندان دارند که هنگام بسته بودن دهان خود برجسته می شود و بیرون می زند. تمساح آمریکایی هنگام بسته بودن دهان ، دندانشان بیرون نمی زند.

the Indo-Pacific, or saltwater, crocodile is one of the biggest reptiles. it is about 23 feet (7 meters) long and weighs more than 2,000 pounds (more than 1,000 kilograms). the American alligator is smaller. it can grow to 20 feet (6 meters) long.

کروکودیل ، ایندوپسیفیک ، یا آب شور ، یکی از بزرگترین خزندگان است. در حدود 23 فوت(7 متر) طول و وزنی بیش از 2000 پوند(بیش از 1000 کیلوگرم) می باشد. تمساح آمریکایی کوچکتر است. آن تا 20 فوت (6 متر) طول رشد می کند.

crocodiles live in warm, tropical places. alligators can live in cooler places as well as warm environments.

کروکودیل ها در نواحی گرم و استوایی زندگی می کنند. تمساح آمریکایی می تواند در نواحی سردتر و همچنین محیط های گرم زندگی کنند.

how are they the same?

all crocodilians are reptiles. they are cold-blooded. this means they must warm up by lying in the sun. they cool off by staying in the shade.

crocodilians breathe through lungs. they spend most of their time in water but must come to the surface to breathe.

the thick skin of crocodilians is made up of bony plates. these animals have about 30 to 40 teeth in each jaw. the teeth lock together when their jaws are closed-kind of the way a zipper’s teeth fit together.

hunting and eating:

alligators and crocodiles float with their bodies almost totally underwater. only their nostrils, eyes, and part of their backs stick out. they look scary as they silently stalk their prey (animals they hunt and eat).

alligators and crocodiles have long, powerful tails. they sometimes swat prey with their tails. they also use their tails to push prey into deeper water, where it is easier to attack.

the powerful jaws of crocodilians slam shut on small animals and crush their bones. they eat fish, frogs, snakes, turtles, birds, and mammals. crocodiles sometimes attack humans.

noisy reptiles:

alligators and crocodiles make all kinds of sounds. they hiss softly. they make fearsome roars and bellows. males roar and bellow loudest during the mating season. scientists don’t know exactly what the roars mean. maybe the males are trying to call females. maybe they are trying to scare other males away.

swimming and walking:

alligators and crocodiles use their tails for swimming. they swish their strong tails back and forth.

on land, crocodilians sometimes crawl on their bellies. they can also gallop and walk fast on all four legs, just as many mammals do.

where alligators live?

there are two species (kinds) of alligators: the American alligator and the Chinese alligator. the American alligator lives mainly in swamps, lakes, and bayous in the southeasternUnited States. American alligators live as far west as theRio GrandeinTexas. the Chinese alligator lives along the Yangtze River inChina.

Chinese alligators are much smaller than American alligators. they are usually less than 8 feet (2.5 meters) long. American alligators will attack people. Chinese alligators almost never attack people.

during cold winters, alligators bury themselves in mud. there they can hibernate until spring.

where crocodiles live?

four species of crocodiles live in theAmericas. these crocodiles are found in southernFlorida,Cubaand other Caribbean islands, southernMexico, Central America, and northernSouth America.

the Indo-Pacific crocodile lives along the seacoasts ofIndia, southernChina,Malaysia, andAustralia. the swamp crocodile is found in the lakes and rivers ofIndia. the Nile crocodile lives in parts ofAfrica.

life cycle?

females crocodilians lay from 20 to 90 eggs. they lay their eggs in nests made of sand, mud, or rotting plant parts. baby crocodilians hatch from the eggs.

most female crocodilians watch over their young. Alligator mothers may help the babies break out of the egg. they sometimes carry the newborn alligators in their mouths. they put the babies into the water. some mothers stay near their young for at least a year. if the young alligator gets in trouble, its mother is there to help.

no one is really sure how long alligators and crocodiles live. scientists estimate that smaller species can live from 30 to 50 years, while larger crocodilian species can live to be 70 or even 80 years old.

threats to crocodilians:

Alligators and crocodiles are threatened by hunting. people hunt them mainly for their eggs and for their skin. many crocodile species are endangered.

the American alligator became an endangered species in 1967. laws protected it from being hunted. as a result, the species made a comeback. by the late 1970s, people could again hunt the American alligator in some states.

 

amphibian /æm"fIbIən/

 

دوزیست (جانداران خونسرد و مهره دار مانند قورباغه و سمندر)                                           

 

 

 

 

any member of a class (Amphibia) of cold-blooded vertebrate animals that includes more than 4,400 species in three groups : frogs and

toads (order Anura), salamanders(order Caudata), and caecilians (order Apoda).
probably evolved from certain fish species of the Early Devonian period (417–391 million years ago), amphibians were the first vertebrates to move from an aquatic environment to land. most species have an aquatic larval, or tadpole, stage that metamorphoses into a terrestrial adult, but a

few species spend their entire life in water. amphibians are found worldwide, the majority in the tropics.

 

دوزیستان هر عضوی از طبقه ی مهره داران خونسرد است که شامل بیش از 4000 گونه در سه گروه می باشند: قورباغه ها و وزغ ها(بی دمان-دوزیستان راسته ی Anura مانند انواع قورباغه ها و وزغ ها) ، سمندرها(دمسان ها) ، و سسیلین ها(دوزیستان بی دست و پا شبیه کرم و مار).

احتمالا از گونه های خاصی از ماهیان اوایل دوره ی دونین(391-417 میلیون سال قبل) تشکیل شده اند ، دوزیستان اولین مهره دارانی بودند که از محیط آبی به خشکی حرکت کردند. بیشتر گونه ها لارو آبی یا لیسه دارند ، مرحله ای که تغییر شکلی به سمت بالغ خشکی است ، اما چند گونه تمام زندگی خود را در آب سر می کنند. دوزیستان در تمام دنیا ، اکثریت در مناطق استوایی یافت می شوند.

 

Say you are thirsty. Can you put your hand in a glass of water and drink it through your skin? Of course you can’t! But some animals can absorb water this way. These animals are called amphibians.

Amphibians are very interesting creatures. They live a kind of double life. They spend the first part of their life in water and the second part on land. In fact, the word amphibian comes from two Greek words that mean “both” and “lives.”

KINDS OF AMPHIBIANS

An amphibian is an animal that has moist, hairless skin. Amphibians are cold-blooded, which means they cannot make their own body heat. They get warm in the sun and cool off in the shade. The three main groups of amphibians are frogs and toads, salamanders, and caecilians. All amphibians have backbones.

The three kinds of amphibians look very different from each other. Frogs and toads have legs but do not have tails. Salamanders have short legs and long bodies ending in tails. Caecilians do not have any legs. They look a lot like big earthworms.

There are more than 4,000 different species (kinds) of amphibians in the world. Nearly all amphibian species are frogs or toads. Toads differ from frogs in the roughness of their skin. Toads have bumpy skin, and frogs have smooth skin. Toads also have shorter legs than frogs.

The biggest amphibian found on Earth is the Japanese giant salamander. It can grow to be longer than 5 feet (1.5 meters). Tiny frogs, such as the gold frog, are only about 0.4 inch (about 1 centimeter) long.

THE DOUBLE LIFE

Most amphibians start out as larvae. Larvae look totally different from adult amphibians. Frog and toad larvae are sometimes called pollywogs or tadpoles. These larvae look more like fish. They live underwater and have a tail that they use for swimming. They breathe through gills to get oxygen from the water.

An amphibian’s body changes completely when it goes from a larva to a grown-up. This kind of change is called metamorphosis. Most grown-up amphibians have lungs for breathing instead of gills. Some have both lungs and gills.

Full-grown amphibians have legs for moving about on land. Frogs and toads have strong hind (back) legs for jumping. Most salamanders have four short legs and a long, strong tail. The tail helps them keep their balance while walking and pushes them forward while swimming. Caecilians never grow legs. They use their hard heads as battering rams when they burrow in the soil. In water, they swim as eels do, by wiggling their wormlike bodies back and forth.

AMAZING SKIN

Amphibians can “drink” through their skin. The skin of an adult amphibian is able to absorb water from its surroundings. Most amphibians do not even swallow water. Their skin soaks up as much as they need.

Amphibians also breathe through their skin. Their skin takes in oxygen as well as water. Most grown-up amphibians get oxygen through both their lungs and their skin. But some salamanders get all their oxygen through their skin. They do not even have lungs or gills.

Slimy stuff called mucus covers an amphibian’s skin. The mucus keeps just the right amount of salt and water in the amphibian. In some species the mucus is poisonous, which helps keep predators from eating the amphibian.

SENSING THE WORLD

Some amphibians have good eyesight and hearing, and some do not. Most frogs and toads can hear well. Salamanders, caecilians, and some frogs can only sense vibrations in the ground or water.

Frogs have great eyesight. They see through two bulging eyes that stick out from their heads. Most caecilians are totally blind.

All amphibians can smell and taste pretty well. Caecilians use feelers on their heads. Amphibians have a place in their mouths called Jacobson’s organ that helps them smell and taste the world around them.

AN AMPHIBIAN’S LIFE

Amphibians that live in cold places spend most of their time trying to keep wet and warm. In hot places, they try to keep wet and cool and usually come out only at night. During the day, they stay under rocks or logs or in the ground.

Amphibians hibernate (become inactive) during cold winters. They become inactive in hot places during the summer.

Almost all grown-up amphibians are meat eaters. Frogs and salamanders have sticky tongues. They flick out their tongues to catch insects, spiders, and other animals. Caecilians have sharp teeth for grabbing their prey.

Amphibians mate when it is rainy outside. They gather in groups to find mates. Some male salamanders show bright colors to get the attention of females. Male frogs call out to females. Their call sounds like this: “ribbet.” Female amphibians lay eggs in water or wet places on land. Larvae hatch out of the eggs.

No one knows how long amphibians live in the wild. Some captured toads have lived 30 years.

WHERE AMPHIBIANS LIVE

Amphibians live everywhere exceptAntarctica. They can be found in grasslands, rain forests, evergreen forests, deserts, and mountain areas. Caecilians live only in the tropics.

Amphibians need water to breed and have babies. So most of them live near ponds, swamps, or streams. A few species can even find water in deserts. Some burrowing frogs live in a dry part ofAustraliacalled the outback. They breed and feed only when it rains, which is not very often.

DISAPPEARING AMPHIBIANS

Amphibians have lived on Earth for more than 300 million years. But recently, something scary has been happening to them. Amphibians are disappearing. There are fewer and fewer amphibians in many parts of the world, including North America, South America, andAustralia. No one knows why.

Some amphibians have also been found with extra legs or other strange problems. Scientists are working hard to find out what is happening to the amphibians.

                                                

amphibious/æm"fIbIəs/دوزیست ، آبی-خاکی                                                  

حیوان ، جانور ، جاندارanimal /"ænIml/                                                    

حیوانات اهلیdomestic animals                                              

in animals, Musk serves the functions of defining territory, providing recognition, and attracting mates

 

در حیوانات ، مشک در تعیین قلمرو ، شناسایی و جلب توجه جفت مفید است

 

some animals’ coloration uses bold, disruptive markings to scare predators

 

در رنگ بندی بعضی از حیوانات ، از نشانه های خشن و آزار دهنده ای برای دفع شکارچیان استفاده شده است

 

some animals have color patterns that blend with their surrounding.

 

بعضی از حیوانات الگوهای رنگی دارند که با محیط اطرافشان هماهنگ است

 

the trapped animals were released after being tagged by the wildlife conservations

 

حیوانات در دام افتاده ، پس از علامت گذاری توسط طرفداران حفاظت حیات وحش آزاد شدند

 

دام پروریanimal husbandry                                                

can you name an animal or bird, which can talk?

 

آیا می توانید حیوان یا پرنده ای را نام ببرید که بتواند حرف بزند؟

 

what animals do you think are cute?

 

چه حیواناتی فکر می کنید با نمک هستند؟

 

what animals do you think are scary?

 

چه حیواناتی فکر می کنید ترسناکند؟

 

what animals do you think are ugly?

 

چه حیواناتی فکر می کنید زشتند؟

 

what animals do you think is the most dangerous?

 

چه حیواناتی فکر می کنید خطرناکترین اند؟

 

anopheles /ə"nQfIli:z/

 

پشه ی آنوفل ، گروهی از پشه ها که ماده ی آنها حامل موجودی زنده با نام پلاسمودیم می باشد و عامل ایجاد بیماری مالاریا در انسان است

 

anopheles is a mosquito of a genus which includes the species that transmits the malarial parasite to humans

 

مورچهant /ænt/                                                                            

ant is a small insect,usually wingless and with a sting, living in a complex social colony with one or more breeding queens

 

مورچه حشره ای کوچک معمولا بدون بال با یک نیش ، این حشره دریک اجتماعی پیچیده با یک یا چندین ملکه ی مادر زندگی می کند

 

any member of approximately 8,000 species of the social insect family Formicidae.
ants are found worldwide but are especially common in hot climates. they range from 0.1 to 1 in. (2–25 mm) long and are usually yellow, brown, red, or black. ants eat both plant and animal substances; some even "farm" fungi for food, cultivating them in their nests, or "milk" aphids. ant colonies consist of three castes (queens, males, and workers, including soldiers) interacting in a highly complex society paralleling that of the honeybees. well-known ant species are the carpenter ants of North America, the voracious army ants of tropical America, and the stinging fire ant

 

لانه ی مورچهanthill                                                                                                                                      

fire antمورچه ی آتشی                                                              

 

fire ants is any of a genus (Solenopsis) of insects in the ant family, several species of which are common in southern North America.
they are red or yellowish and can inflict a severe sting. the semipermanent nest consists of a loose mound with open craters for ventilation. the workers are notorious for damaging planted grain and attacking poultry

 

 

بز کوهی (انواع نشخوارکنندگان آهو مانند)antelope /"æntIləUp/                           

antelope is a swift-running deer-like ruminant animal with upward-pointing horns, of a group including the gazelles, impala, gnu , and eland

 

بز کوهی حیوانی تیزپا و نشخوارکننده همچون گوزن با  شاخ های شاخه دار می باشد ، این حیوان از گروهی شامل غزال ها ، ایمپالا ، گوزن یالدار(نو) ، و ایلند (آهوی درشت و گاو مانند آفریقایی) است

 

any of numerous species of Old Worldgrazing or browsing bovids that typically are swift, slender, and graceful plains dwellers.
the North American pronghorn is also sometimes referred to as an antelope. most antelope are African; the others, except for the pronghorn, are Eurasian. they range in shoulder height from 10 to 70 in. (25–175 cm). the male, and sometimes the female, bears distinctive, backwardly curved horns. dik-dik, duiker, eland, gazelle, gnu,

hartebeest, impala, kudu, nyala, oryx, springbok, waterbuck.

 

Antelopes are mammals with hooves and hollow horns. There are about 100 species (kinds) of antelopes. They live in Africa andAsia. Antelopes range in size from the tiny royal antelope, which stands about 10 inches (25 cm), to the giant eland, which weighs as much as a car!

Most antelopes live in herds. Some live in forests, and others live on open plains. They nibble on plants for food. Some graze on grass. Others eat leaves and fruit from bushes and trees.

Almost all antelopes are shy. They rely on speed for safety. When they spot danger, they run away. Many antelopes use their speed and jumping ability to avoid hungry predators, like lions and hyenas

 

 

antler, hart shorn /"æntlə(r)/

 

شاخ (آهو و گوزن و غیره که هر سال می ریزد و از نو می روید)

 

aphid /شته                                                                                 

aphid is a small bug which feeds by sucking sap from plants

 

شته ، حشره ا ی است که شهد گیاهان را می مکد و می تواند ناقل بیماریها باشد

 

any of several species of sapsucking, soft-bodies

insects (order Homoptera) that are about the size of a pinhead, with tubelike projections on the abdomen. serious plant pests, they stunt plant growth, produce plant galls, transmit plant viral diseases, and deform leaves, buds, and flowers. ants may take care of aphids, protecting them from weather and natural enemies and transferring them from wilted to healthy plants. the ants in turn obtain honeydew, a sweet product excreted by aphids, which the ants retrieve by "milking" the aphids (stroking their abdomens).

 

arachnidعنکبوت                                                                    

any member of the class Arachnida, primarily carnivorous arthropods having a well-developed head, a hard external skeleton, and four pairs of walking legs.
spiders and scorpions have a segmented body, but daddy longlegs, ticks, and mites do not. arachnids range in size from tiny mites (0.003 in. (0.08 mm) long) to the 8-in. (21-cm) black scorpion of Africa. as arachnids grow, they molt several times. most are unable to digest food internally; instead, they inject their prey with digestive fluids and suck the liquefied remains. arachnids are found worldwide in nearly every habitat. most groups are free-living, but some mites and ticks are parasitic and can carry serious diseases of animals and humans. venomous spiders and scorpions also may pose a danger to humans. however, most arachnids are harmless and prey on insect pests.

 

arachnida /ə"ræknIdə/

 

عنکبوتیان ، عضوی از گروه حیوانات که شامل عنکبوتها و عقربها می باشد

 

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