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فرهنگ اتومبیل و خودرو by: گروه ترجمه کده

       فرهنگ  اتومبیل

 

 

 

 

 

(اتومبیل) گاز دادنto accelerate /ək"seləreIt/                                    

(اتومبیل) گاز ، پدال گازaccelerator /ək"seləreItə(r)/                       

a device(as a pedal) for controlling the speed of a motor vehicle engine

    

(تایر اتومبیل) بادair /eə(r)/                                                       

تایرها را باد کردنto put air in the tires                                          

(اتومبیل) کیسه ی هواair bag                                              

(اتومبیل) فیلتر هواair filter                                                       

(اتومبیل) فیلتر روغنoil filter                                                     

to align /ə"laIn/

 

(اتومبیل) میزان کردن ، تنظیم کردن ، بالانس کردن چرخ ها

    

(اتومبیل) دینامalternator /"O:ltəneItə(r)/                               

alternator is a dynamo that generates an alternating current

 

دینام  مولدی است که جریان متناوب تولید می کند

 

Source of direct electric current in modern vehicles for ignition, lights, fans, and other uses.
The electric power is generated by an alternator mechanically coupled to the engine, with a rotor field coil supplied with current through slip rings, and a stator with a three-phase winding. A rectifier converts the power from alternating to direct form. A regulator ensures that the output voltage is properly matched to the battery voltage as engine speed varies. An inductor alternator is a special kind of synchronous generator in which both the field and the output winding are on the stator.

 

armrest /A:mrest/

 

(اتومبیل) دسته ی صندلی ، جادستی (برآمدگی درون درب اتومبیل که می توان آرنج را روی آن قرار داد)

 

(اتومبیل) دنده ی اتوماتیکautomatic /%O:tə"mætIk/                                  

automobile /"O:təməbi:l , %O:təmə"bi:l/

 

اتومبیل ، ماشین سواری ، خودرو(سواری نه باری)

       

هر خودرو را می‌ توان به هفت بخش کلی تقسیم کرد که عبارت ‌اند از: مولد قدرت(موتور): در این واحد که انرژی شیمیایی بنزین به انرژی مکانیکی تبدیل می ‌شود حرارت ناشی از سوختن هیدروکربورها با بالاتر از     700 درجه ی سانتیگراد می ‌رسدکه به علت بازده ی مفید سیستم از هر 4 قسمت حرارت تولید شده یک قسمت به انرژی مکانیکی تبدیل می ‌شد و بقیه به صورت هوای گرم یا دودهای حاصل از احتراق از موتور خارج می ‌شود. در یک موتور در حدود 120 تا 150 قطعه ی متحرک وجود دارد که همه نیاز به روغن کاری دارند با توجه به درست کار کردن سیستم روغن کاری ولی باز هم عمر مفید یک خودرو 8 سال کار و یا پیمودن 150000کیلومتر مسافت است. سیستم انتقال قدرت: این مجموعه وظیفه دارد قدرت تولیدی موتور را به چرخ ها انتقال دهد که شامل جعبه دنده یا مبدل گشتاور و سرعت و کلاچ می ‌باشد. گروه فنر بندی و تعلیق: در اتومبیل ‌های جدید دستگاه فنربندی در هر دقیقه بیش از 1000 تا 1200 بار نوسان می‌ کند تا اتاق و شاسی ، سرنشینان را در معرض ضربه‌ های ناشی از ناهمواری ‌های جاده قرار ندهد. گروه چرخ بندی ترمزها: به طور متوسط در هر 90000 کیلومتر مسافت پیموده شده یا هر شش سال کار خودرو هر چرخ حدود 95 میلیون بار چرخش می‌ کند. گروه بدنه و شاسی: بدنه ی خودروهای جدید طوری ساخته می ‌شود که بتواند تمامی قطعات را نگهداری کند در هر بدنه ی خودرو حدود 40 متر مربع ورق فولادی به کار می ‌رود که ضخامت آن 4 تا 2.1 می باشد. گروه هدایت و فرمان: نیروی متوسطی که لازم است تا بتواند خودرو را در یک پیچ معمولی هدایت کرد بین 5 تا 10 کیلوگرم می ‌باشد ولی سیستم ‌های جدید فرمان نیرو را به حدود 30 گرم کاهش داده ‌است. گروه مدارات الکتریکی: از باطری‌ های 6 ، 12 ، 24 ولتی برای راه اندازی و روشن کردن موتور استفاده می‌ شود. سیستم جرقه زنی را تا 30000 ولت افزایش داده برای جرقه زنی موتور آماده می‌ کند در این گروه همچنین چراغ های روشنایی و علایم و برف پاکن ‌ها و بخاری و دیگر وسایل الکتریکی نصب شده‌ است.

 

صنعت اتومبیل سازیthe automobile industry                             

بیمه ی اتومبیلautomobile insurance                                      

 

axleاکسل                                                                                  

an axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. in some cases the axle may be fixed in position with a bearing or bushing sitting inside the hole in the wheel or gear to allow the wheel or gear to rotate around the axle. in other cases the wheel or gear may be fixed to the axle, with bearings or bushings provided at the mounting points where the axle is supported

 

اکسل محور مرکزی یک چرخ یا دنده است. در بعضی موارد ، اکسل شاید با یک یاتاقان یا بوش مکانیکی در سطح داخلی سوراخ چرخ یا دنده در جایش ثابت نگه داشته شود تا به چرخ یا دنده اجازه دهد که آزادانه به دور اکسل بچرخد.

 

axles are an integral structural component of a wheeled vehicle. the axles maintain the position of the wheels relative to each other and to the vehicle body. since for most vehicles the wheels are the only part touching the ground, the axles must bear the weight of the vehicle plus any cargo, as well as acceleration and braking forces. in addition to the structural purpose, axles may serve one or more of the following purposes depending on the design of the vehicle

drive: one or more axles may be an integral part of the drivetrain. a mechanical system (typically a motor) exerts a rotational force on the axle, which is transferred to the wheel(s) to accelerate the vehicle.

braking: conversely a vehicle may be slowed by applying force to brake the rotation of the axle. most vehicles’ brakes are part of the wheel assembly and then exert torque to the wheels directly, but engine braking may still be effected via the axle.

steering: the front axle of most automobiles is a steering axle. the vehicle is maneuvered by controlling the direction of the front wheels’ rotational axis relative to the body and rear wheels.

 

 

a straight axle is a single rigid shaft connecting a wheel on the left side of the vehicle to a wheel on the right side. the axis of rotation fixed by the axle is common to both wheels. such a design can keep the wheel positions steady under heavy stress, and can therefore support heavy loads. straight axles are used on trains, for the rear axles of commercial trucks, and on heavy duty off-road vehicles. the axle can be protected and further reinforced by enclosing the length of the axle in a housing.

in split-axle designs, the wheel on each side is attached to a separate shaft. modern passenger cars have split drive axles. in some designs, this allows independent suspension of the left and right wheels, and therefore a smoother ride. even when the suspension is not independent, split axles permit the use of a differential, allowing the left and right drive wheels to be driven at different speeds as the automobile turns, improving traction and extending tire life.

(خودمانی) با سرعت راندنto belt                                               

با سرعت در جاده می راندیمwe were belting along the road          

ball and socket joint

 

(اتومبیل) سیبک ، (مکانیک) اتصال چرخشی ، اتصال کروی

           

a joint in which a ball moves within a socket so as to allow rotary motion in every direction within certain limits

 

to blink

 

(در مورد چراغ اتومبیل و غیره) روشن و خاموش کردن ، چراغ راهنما زدن ، علامت دادن

 

the driver blinked his lights twice and then stopped the car

 

راننده دوبار چراغ ها را خاموش و روشن نمود و سپس ماشین را متوقف کرد

 

(اتومبیل و کامیون و غیره) بدنه ، اتاقbody                                        

the body (of this car) needs repairs and a new coat of paint

 

اتاق این اتومبیل نیاز به تعمیر و رنگ دارد

 

تعمیرگاه بدنه ی اتومبیلbody shop                                             

bodywork

 

بدنه ی اتومبیل و طرح و شکل آن ، ساختن یا تعمیر اتاق و بدنه ی اتومبیل

 

(انگلیس) کاپوت اتومبیل (در آمریکا و کانادا :hood)bonnet                  

(انگلیس) صندوق عقب اتومبیل(در آمریکا و کانادا:trunk)boot               

سگدستbracket                                                           

brakeترمز ، ترمز کردن                                                               

Device for decreasing the speed of a body or stopping its motion. Most brakes act on rotating mechanical elements and absorb kinetic energymechanically, hydrodynamically, or electrically. Mechanical brakes are the most common; they dissipate the kinetic energy as heat  generated by mechanical frictionbetween a rotating drum or disk and a stationary friction element. A hydrodynamic (fluid) brake has a rotor (rotating element) and a stator (stationary element). Resistance to rotation is created by fluid friction and circulation of the liquid (usually water) from a series of pockets in the rotor to a series of complementary pockets in the stator. See also air brake

 

 

before moving out,  put your right foot on the brake. then put it into the drive position and check out your mirror and left directional signal

 

قبل از حرکت پای راست خود را روی پدال ترمز قرار داده سپس آن را در حالت رانندگی / حرکت قرار بده و آینه و راهنمای سمت چپ را بررسی کن

 

air brakeترمز هوا                                                                     

Either of two kinds of braking systems.
The first, used by trains, trucks, and buses, operates by a piston driven by compressed air from reservoirs connected to brake cylinders. When air pressure in the brake pipe is reduced, air is automatically admitted into the brake cylinder. The first practical air brake for railroads was invented in the 1860s by George Westinghouse. The second type, used by aircraft and race cars, consists of a flap or surface that can be mechanically projected into the airstream to increase the resistance of the vehicle to air and lower its speed.

 

disk brakeترمز دیسکی                                                              

a brake that operates by the action of a frictional material pressed against the sides of a rotating disc by a caliper

 

drum brakeترمز کاسه ای                                                          

a brake that operates by the friction of usually a pair of shoes pressing against the inner surface of the cylinder of a rotating drum 

 

پدال ترمزbrake pedal                                                         

brake shoeکفشک ترمز                                                              

brake liningلنت ترمز                                                            

my brake doesn’t work well

 

ترمز ماشین من خوب کار نمی کند     

 

brake fluidروغن ترمز                                                          

hand brakeترمز دستی                                                             

brake drumکاسه ی ترمز                                                           

I had to apply the brakes abruptly

 

مجبور شدم غفلتا ترمز کنم

 

the driver braked around curves

 

راننده سر پیچ های جاده ترمز می گرفت(اتومبیل را آهسته می راند)

 

to buckleبستن(کمربند و غیره)                                                        

please buckle your seat belts

 

لطفا کمربندهای ایمنی خود را ببندید

 

(اتومبیل و کامیون) سپرbumper                                                  

usually a car has a front bumper and a back bumper

 

معمولا هر اتومبیل یک سپر جلو و یک سپر عقب دارد

 

bumper-to-bumper

 

(در مورد ترافیک) شلوغ ، سپر به سپر ، ماشین پشت سر ماشین

 

because of the bumper-to-bumper traffic, we were on hour late

 

به واسطه ی تراکم وسایط نقلیه یک ساعت دیر رسیدیم

 

Cadillac

 

نام تجارتی گونه ای اتومبیل لوکس آمریکایی ، ماشین کادیلاک

 

اتومبیل ، ماشین سواری ، خودرو(سواری)car                                       

please don’t park your car here

 

لطفا اتومبیل خود را در اینجا پارک نکنید

 

you’ll get a ticket if you leave your car here

 

اگر ماشینتان را اینجا بگذارید جریمه می شوید

 

is it ok to throw your garbage out of your car ?

 

آیا درست است که از داخل ماشین خود آشغال بیرون بیاندازید؟

 

what are the advantages of owing a car ?

 

امتیازات ماشین داشتن چیست؟

 

whose car is parked in front of the gate ?

 

ماشین چه کسی جلوی درب ورودی پارک شده است؟

 

we’ll be home tomorrow at this time. don’t make your hope, I don’t think our car will be ready by tomorrow

 

فردا این موقع خانه خواهیم بود . زیاد هم امیدوار نباش فکر نمی کنم ماشینمان تا فردا آماده شود

 

these grade-school devils broke my car window

 

این تخم جن های دبستان شیشه ی ماشین مرا شکستند

 

she came with an ace of being hit by a car

 

نزدیک بود ماشین به او بزند

 

his car was just behind me

 

ماشین اون درست در پشت سر من بود

 

my car doesn’t start / crank. let me have a look

 

ماشینم استارت نمی زند / روشن نمی شود . اجازه بده ببینم / نگاهی بیاندازم

 

he just missed being hit by a car

 

نزدیک بود ماشین به او بزند

 

before we set the car in motion, we double-check that our seat is comfortable, our seat belt is on properly, and the last thing to do is to check mirror. we make sure that our mirrors are set up,

then we start the car

 

قبل از اینکه با ماشین حرکت کنیم(ماشین را به حرکت بیاندازیم) صندلی خود را از نظر راحتی بررسی و کنترل می کنیم  ، کمربند ایمنی را به درستی می بندیم و آخرین کاری که انجام می دهیم آینه را بررسی می کنیم و مطمئن می شویم که آینه ها تنظیم شده اند ،  سپس ماشین را روشن می کنیم

 

تصادف اتومبیلcar accident                                              

بیمه ی اتومبیلcar insurance                                                 

سرقت اتومبیلcar theft                                                           

لوازم اضافی یا تزیینی اتومبیلcar accessories                                 

صندلی اتومبیلcar seat                                                           

صندلی رانندهdriver’s seat                                                      

صندلی عقب اتومبیلback seat                                                   

صندلی جلوی ماشینfront seat                                              

اتومبیل دست دومsecond-hand car                                   

this car eats up too much gas

 

این اتومبیل خیلی بنزین مصرف می کند

    

six black cars were escorting his hearse

 

شش اتومبیل سیاه ، نعش کش او را دنبال روی می کردند

 

in case he asks, tell him we don’t have a car

 

اگر پرسید بگو ماشین نداریم

 

have you ever been hit by a car ?

 

آیا هرگز ماشین به شما زده است ؟

 

what would you do if you had a nice car ?

 

اگر یک ماشین خوب داشتید چه کار می کردید؟

 

you don’t have a car or motorcycle, how do you get around?

 

تو که نه ماشین داری نه موتور ، پس چه جوری این ور اون ور میری ؟

 

it’s difficult to get around without a car

 

بدون ماشین این ور اون ور رفتن خیلی مشکله

 

خودرو بزرگ اتاقدار(van هم می گویند)caravan                               

carful

 

به اندازه ی یک اتومبیل پر ، گنجایش یک اتومبیل (یا کامیون یا واگن)

 

یک ماشین پر از بچهa carful of children                           

carjack

        

سرقت اتومبیل(معمولا با سرنشین یا سرنشینان) ، اتومبیل ربایی      

    

carjacking is a serious crime

 

اتومبیل ربایی جرم بزرگی است

 

به اندازه ی یک کامیون پر ، به قصد بار یک کامیون یا اتومبیلcarload           

they delivered a carload of potatoes

 

آنها یک کامیون سیب زمینی تحویل دادند

 

باربند اتومبیلcar rack                                                           

تاکسی/ اتوبوس گرفتنto catch a taxi/ bus                                 

chassis

 

(مکانیک) شاسی ، تنه ی اتومبیل(بدون اتاق یا frame) ، تنه بر

 

 

the supporting frame of a structure (as an automobile or television) also : the frame and working parts (as of an automobile or electronic device) exclusive of the body or housing

 

(مکانیک اتومبیل) ساسات زدن ، ساسات ، خفه کن ، گلوییchoke               

(اتومبیل) کلاچclutch                                                             

Device for quickly and easily connecting or disconnecting a pair of rotatable coaxial shafts.
Clutches are usually placed between the driving motor and the input shaft to a machine and provide a convenient means for starting and stopping the machine and permitting the driving motor or engine to be started in an unloaded state (as in an automobile). Mechanical clutches provide either a positive (no-slip) or a friction-dependent drive; centrifugal clutches provide automatic engagement. An overrunning clutch transmits torque in one direction only and permits the driven shaft of a machine to freewheel (continue rotating after the driver stops); on bicycles, such clutches permit the rider to coast without moving the pedals

 

کلاج را گرفتنto let in / put the clutch                                  

کلاج را ول کردنto let out / release the clutch                        

(آمریکا- خودمانی- اتومبیل و ماشین آلات) قراضهclunker                      

اتومبیل دو درcoach                                                                  

(اتومبیل) کوچک و سبک و کم مصرف ، اتومبیل نقلیcompact                 

شاتون ، (در فرمان اتومبیل) بازوconnecting rod                               

اتومبیل کروکیconvertible                                                          

(اتومبیل و غیره) پیچیدن ، گردیدن ، د.ور زدنto corner                        

این ماشین (سر پیچ) خوب دور می زندthis car corners well               

(مکانیک-اتومبیل) میل لنگcrankshaft                                        

 

a shaft driven by or driving a crank
: a shaft consisting of a series of cranks and crankpins to which the connecting rods of an engine are attached

 

 (اتومبیل) تصادف کردنto crash                                                    

he crashed the car against a cliff and died

 

ماشین را به صخره زد و کشته شد

 

crash barrier

 

نرده ی کنار جاده (برای جلوگیری از سقوط اتومبیل و غیره) ، دیواره

 

(خودمانی- هواپیما یا اتومبیل) قراضه ، لکنتهcrate                               

اتومبیل او کهنه و لکنته استhis car is an old crate                       

(اتومبیل) داشبرد ، داشبوردdash                                                  

(اتومبیل) داشبرد ، داشبوردdashboard                                           

to dim

 

کم نور شدن / کردن (به ویژه کم نور کردن چراغ های جلو هنگام مقابله با اتومبیل دیگر)

 

when you see other cars, dim your lights

 

وقتی ماشین های دیگر را می بینی با نور پایین حرکت کن

 

in town drive with your dim lights

 

در شهر با نور پایین حرکت کن

 

to disengage

 

(دنده ی اتومبیل) خلاص کردن ، (کلاج) گرفتن ، جداشدن / کردن

 

(دنده ی اتومبیل و غیره) خلاصdisengaged                                     

(اتومبیل) دلکوdistributor                                                

distributor is a device in a petrol engine for passing electric current to each spark plug in turn

 

دلکو وسیله ای در موتور است برای عبور دادن جریان الکتریکی منظم  به شمع است

       

an apparatus for directing the secondary current from the induction coil to the various spark plugs of an engine in their proper firing order

 

(اتومبیل و غیره) توی جوی رفتن ، در چاله افتادن / انداختنto ditch    

(اتومبیل) درdoor                                                                     

در عقب اتومبیلback door                                                       

در سمت راست خودروoffside door                                                   

(اتومبیل و غیره) دستگیره ی درdoor handle                                

downshift

 

(دنده ی اتومبیل) دنده را از سنگین به سبکتر عوض کردن ، دنده ی معکوس

 

when we reached the foothills, we had to downshift

 

وقتی که به کوهپایه رسیدیم مجبور شدیم با دنده ی پایین تر برویم

 

drive

 

راندن ، رانندگی کردن ، (با وسیله ی نقلیه) بردن ، رانندگی ، ماشین رانی

 

I will drive/ take you home                                 

 

می رسانمت خانه(منظور با وسیله ی نقلیه ی خودم)

 

او خوب رانندگی می کندhe drives well                                       

she drives the children to school

 

او (با ماشین) بچه ها را به مدرسه می برد

 

our drive lasted two hours

 

سفر ما (با اتومبیل) دو ساعت طول کشید

 

the drive through the mountains was very difficult

 

رانندگی در کوهستان بسیار سخت بود

 

increasingly, authorities are uneasy about teenagers who drive while talking on the telephone

 

مقامات مسئول کشور به طور روزافزون در مورد جوانانی که در حین رانندگی با تلفن صحبت می کنند سخت گیری می کنند

 

many countries now disapprove of cell phones so much that they have forbidden anyone of any age to use them while driving

 

بسیاری از جوامع در حال حاظر تلفن همراه را به قدری نفی می کنند که استفاده از آن را در هنگام رانندگی برای همه در هر سنی ممنوع اعلام کرده اند

 

گواهینامه ی رانندگیdriver’s license                                      

do you have a valid driver’s license?

 

آیا یک گواهینامه ی معتبر دارید؟

 

رانندگیdriving                                                                       

رانندگی با بی دقتیcareless driving                                           

driving schoolآموزشگاه / مدرسه ی رانندگی                               

the A B C  school of driving is: A for attention; pay attention at all times. B for beware, beware to watch out for other drivers at all times; C for calm, keep calm at all times

 

a b c رانندگی این است:  a  برای دقت . همواره دقت کن . b برای مراقب بودن . همواره دیگر رانندگان را بپا . c برای آرامش. همواره خونسردی خودت را حفظ کن

 

(موتور اتومبیل و غیره) میل گاردان ، میله ی متحرکdrive shaft             

شرح پشت گواهینامهendorsement                                             

the driver’s license is endorsed

 

جرم راننده در پشت گواهینامه اش نوشته شده است

 

to engage

 

(چرخ یا دنده ی موتور) گیرانداختن ، جا افتادن ، (دنده) گرفتن ، توی دنده افتادن

 

کلاج گرفتنto engage the gears                                            

the gears don’t engage properly

 

دنده ها / چرخ دنده ها درست به هم جفت نمی شوند

 

(اتومبیل) موتورengine                                                                

he took the engine’s bowels out but still doesn’t know what the trouble is

 

دل و روده ی موتور را درآورد ولی هنوز هم نمی داند عیب از کجاست

 

(انگلیس) اتومبیل استیشن(آمریکا : station wagon)estate car            

(اتومبیل) اگزوزexhaust                                                           

an exhaust system is usually tubing used to guide reaction exhaust gases away from a controlled combustion inside an engine or stove. the entire system conveys burnt gases from the engine and includes one or more exhaust pipes. depending on the overall system design, the exhaust gas may flow through one or more of: cylinder head and exhaust manifold, a turbocharger to increase engine power, a catalytic converter to reduce air pollution, a muffler(North America) or silencer (Europe), to reduce noise.

اگزوز قطعه ‌ای در خودرو و دیگر وسائط نقلیه است که دود حاصل از واکنش شیمیایی را که در سیلندر ایجاد می ‌شود به خارج از خودرو انتقال می ‌دهد. این تعریف اگرچه بیانگر عمده ی کار اگزوز می‌ باشد اما امروزه ویژگی های اگزوز گسترش یافته و وظایف دیگری نیز بر عهده دارد. سه وظیفه ی عمده ی اگزوز : کاهش آلایندگی ، کاهش صدا ، کاهش دما. اگزوزها از سه بخش اتصال به موتور، میانی و انتهایی ساخته می‌ شود که در این میان کاتالیست به دلیل نیاز به دمای 800 درجه ی سانتیگراد در قسمت اول تعبیه می‌گردد و بخش های دوم و سوم در کاهش دما و صدا موثرند. این وسیله می‌ تواند برای کاهش خروج گازهای خطرناک حاصل از سوزاندن سوخت تاثیر بسزایی داشته باشد. در امور مربوط به تیونینگ انجین(تقویت موتور) از اگزوزهایی استفاده می ‌شود که کمترین مقاومت را در عبور گازهای خروجی داشته باشد.

an exhaust pipe must be carefully designed to carry toxic and or noxious gases away from the users of the machine. indoor generators and furnaces can quickly fill an enclosed space with carbon monoxide or other poisonous exhaust gases if they are not properly vented to the outdoors. also, the gases from most types of machine are very hot; the pipe must be heat-resistant, and it must not pass through or near anything which can burn or can be damaged by heat. a chimney serves as an exhaust pipe in a stationary structure. for the internal combustion engine it is important to have the Exhaust System "Tuned" for optimal efficiency.

 

Motorcycle exhausts come in many varieties depending on the type of engine and its intended use. A twin cylinder may flow its exhaust into separate exhaust sections, such as seen in the Kawasaki EX250 (also known as the Ninja 250 in the US, or the GPX 250). Or, they may flow into a single exhaust section known as a two-into-one (2-1). Larger engines that come with 4 cylinders, such as Japanese supersport or superbikes (such the Kawasaki ZX series, Honda's CBR series, Yamaha's YZF series, also known as R6 and R1, and Suzuki's GSX-R series) often come with a twin exhaust system. A "full system" may be bought as an aftermarket accessory, also called a 4-2-1 or 4-1, depending on its layout. In the past, these bike would come standard with a single exhaust, as seen on the Kawasaki ZX-6R 2000 and 2001 models. However, EU noise and pollution regulations have generally stopped this practice, forcing companies to use other methods to increase performance of the motorcycle. This has often led to a decrease in fuel economy, because of increased weight of the exhaust system and manufacturers forcing more fuel into the engine to gain extra power.

In most production engines, the manifold is an assembly designed to collect the exhaust gas from two or more cylinders into one pipe. Manifolds are often made of cast iron in stock production cars, and may have material-saving design features such as to use the least metal, to occupy the least space necessary, or have the lowest production cost. These design restrictions often result in a design that is cost effective but that does not do the most efficient job of venting the gases from the engine. Inefficiencies generally occur due to the nature of the combustion engine and its cylinders. Since cylinders fire at different times, exhaust leaves them at different times, and pressure waves from gas emerging from one cylinder might not be completely vacated through the exhaust system when another comes. This creates a back pressure and restriction in the engine's exhaust system that can restrict the engine's true performance possibilities.

A header (sometimes called extractor in Australia) is a manifold specifically designed for performance.[1] During design, engineers create a manifold without regard to weight or cost but instead for optimal flow of the exhaust gases. This design results in a header that is more efficient at scavenging the exhaust from the cylinders. Headers are generally circular steel tubing with bends and folds calculated to make the paths from each cylinder's exhaust port to the common outlet all equal length, and joined at narrow angles to encourage pressure waves to flow through the outlet, and not back towards other cylinders. In a set of tuned headers the pipe lengths are carefully calculated to enhance exhaust flow in a particular engine revolutions per minute range.

The end of the final length of exhaust pipe where it vents to open air, generally the only visible part, often ends with just a straight or angled cut, but may include a fancy tip. The tip is usually chromed, and is often of larger pipe than the rest of the exhaust system. This produces a final reduction in pressure, as well as prevents rusting of the tips, and can be used to enhance the appearance of the car, like the one in the picture. These are the least expensive parts of the system.

(ترمز اتومبیل و غیره) بریدن ، کارنکردنto fade                                   

(دوچرخه و غیره) گلگیر ، (اتومبیل) سپرfender                                   

(اتومبیل – بنزین) پر کردنto fill                                                  

پرش کن لطفاً( پر کردن بنزین در پمپ بنزین)fill it up please           

(دنده ی موتور اتومبیل و غیره) دنده یکfirst                                       

دنده یک بزن ! بزن تو دنده ی اول !shift into first                            

(اتومبیل) به چپ و راست حرکت کردن ، ویراژ رفتنto fishtail                 

the car fishtailed on the icy road

 

اتومبیل روی جاده ی پوشیده از یخ به چپ و راست لیز می خورد

 

(اتومبیل) چراغ راهنماflasher                                                       

(لاستیک اتومبیل و دوچرخه و غیره) کم باد ، بی باد ، پنچرflat                   

on the road to Ghom, one of my tires went flat

 

در راه قم یکی از لاستیک هایم پنچر شد

 

لاستیک پنچرa flat tire                                                          

sorry I’m late. I got a flat tire on the way here

 

ببخشید دیر کردم تو راه ماشینم پنچر شد

 

(اتومبیل) گاز ماشین را تا ته فشار دادنto floor                                   

تا ته گاز بدهfloor it                                                                      

او گاز را تا ته فشار دادhe floored the accelerator                        

کف اتومبیلfloor board                                                           

(مسابقات اتومبیل و موتور سیکلت رانی) ردهformula                              

اتومبیل های کورسی رده ی اولformula 1 racing cars                   

to freewheel

 

(در سرازیری) با دنده ی خلاص حرکت کردن ، (دوچرخه) بدون پا زدن رفتن

 

 

(اتومبیل و موتور و غیره) کم سوز ، کم مصرفfuel-efficient                   

a fuel-efficient car uses less gasoline

 

اتومبیل کم مصرف بنزین کمتری مصرف می کند

 

(اتومبیل) دنده ، (ماشین را) تو دنده گذاشتنgear                                  

دنده ی یک / دو / سه first / second / third gear                      

دنده عقبreverse gear                                                          

ماشین را تو دنده بگذارput the car in gear                                   

وصل به دنده ی ماشین ، توی دندهin gear                                      

دنده ی خلاص ، غیر وصل به موتورout of gear                               

don’t turn off the engine while you’re still in gear

 

وقتی که ماشین توی دنده است آنرا خاموش نکنید

 

it’s good habit to take the car out of gear while you’re at a stoplight

 

چه خوب است زمانی که در پشت چراغ قرمز هستید ماشین را در حالت دنده ی خلاص نگه دارید

 

his mountain bike has 18 gears

 

دوچرخه ی کورسی او هجده دنده دارد

 

دنده ی پایینتر بکار بردنto gear down                                         

دنده عوض کردنto shift/ change gears                                                 

gearbox

 

(اتومبیل)گیربکس ، جعبه دنده ، دستگاه انتقال نیرو از موتور به چرخ ها

 

gearshift

 

(اتومبیل) دسته یا میله ی دنده عوض کن ، میله ی دنده ، محور دنده

 

get

 

سوار شدن(وسیله ی نقلیه)to get on                                             

he was getting on the bus that I saw him

 

سوار اتوبوس می شد که او را دیدم

 

(وسیله ی نقلیه) پیاده شدنto get off                                           

he usually gets off the bus at Vanak square

 

او معمولا در میدان ونک از اتوبوس پیاده می شود

 

(وسیله ی نقلیه) سوار شدنto get in                                               

سوار شو ، من شما را می رسانمget in I’ll take you                        

بیایید سوار شویمlet’s get in the car                                            

(اتومبیل) جعبه ی داشبورد (داشبرد)glove compartment        

            

ترمز دستیhand brake                                                         

(اتومبیل و غیره) کاربرد آسان و روان داشتنto handle                           

دست به فرمان این اتومبیل خوب استthis car handles well                    

hatchback

 

(اتومبیلی که به جای صندوق عقب دریچه ی آویخته ای دارد) هاچ بک ، اتومبیل با در پشت

 

(در تصادفات اتومبیل و غیره) شاخ به شاخ ، از جلوhead-on                       

تصادف شاخ به شاخ a head-on collision                                    

(اتومبیل و غیره) چراغ جلوheadlight                                               

headrest

 

(در صندلی اتومبیل یا صندلی دندانپزشک و غیره) زیرسری ، جاسری

 

(اتومبیل و موتور) دنده ی سه یا چهار ، دنده ی بالاhigh                           

او با دنده ی بالا(سرعت زیاد) می راندhe drove in high gear         

(چراغ های جلو اتومبیل) نور بالا ، نور قویhigh beam                           

مفتی سوار ماشین کسی شدنto hitch                                           

مجانی سوار شد و به منزل رفتhe hitched a ride home                                         

(اتومبیل) بوق زدن ، قات قات کردنto honk                                     

please don’t honk your horn near the hospital

 

لطفا در نزدیکی بیمارستان بوق نزنید

 

(اتومبیل) بوق زدنto hoot                                                       

بوق نزنdon’t hoot your horn                                              

(اتومبیل) بوقhorn                                                                   

بوق زدنto sound / beep one’s horn                                                 

(اتومبیل) قالپاق ، درپوش توپیhubcap                                              

هرزگردی(موتور) ، کار درجا ، هرزگردidle                                           

موتور در حال کار درجاan engine at idle                                     

چرخ دنده ی هرزگردidle gear                                                  

(اتومبیل) چراغ راهنما زدنto indicate                                          

(اتومبیل) چراغ راهنماindicator                                                   

توپی تایر(اتومبیل و دوچرخه) ، تیوپinner tube                               

jack

 

(اتومبیل و غیره) جک ، هر وسیله ی بلند کردن (در فواصل کم) ، (معمولا با up )جک زدن

 

جک اتومبیلautomobile jack                                                  

اتومبیل را جک زدنto jack up an automobile                 

(اجزای موتور) گریپاژ کردن ، گیر کردن ، سفت شدنto jam                   

(اتومبیل نظامی و صحرایی) جیپjeep                                              

jumper cables

 

(اتومبیل- دو کابل عایق دار و گیره دار که با آن باطری خوب یک ماشین را به باطری خالی ماشین دیگر وصل می کنند تا آن را به کار بیاندازند) سیم های استارت زنی

 

(اتومبیل) قراضه ، اسقاطjunk                                                        

this car is such a piece of junk that nobody will buy it

 

این اتومبیل آنقدر قراضه است که هیچ کس آن را نخواهد خرید

 

junkyard

 

(جایی که در آن اشیای قراضه و دور انداخته شده را اوراق می کنند و می فروشند) اسقاطگاه ، گورستان اتومبیل ، اسقاطی

 

lane

 

(شاهراه ها و غیره) هریک از نوارهای خط کشی شده برای عبور یک اتومبیل ، خط عبوری ، لاین ، باند

 

an eight-lane highway

 

بزرگراه هشت باندی(دارای ظرفیت چهار ماشین در هر دو طرف)

 

when you want to change lanes, you must first signal

 

وقتی می خواهید خط عبوری خود را عوض کنید علامت بدهید

 

(آمریکا-خودمانی) اتومبیل بد کار و پر دردسرlemon                                  

the used car I bought turned out to be a lemon

 

ماشین دست دومی که خریدم خیلی بد از کار درآمد

 

license plate

 

(انگلیس :number-plate) نمره ی اتومبیل(و سایر وسایط  نقلیه) ، پلاک

 

(با اتومبیل و غیره) رساندنto lift                                                

come on, I’ll give you a lift. no I don’t want to disturb you, it’s not on your way home

 

بیا می رسونمت . نه نمی خوام راه تو رو دور کنم

 

(اتومبیل و غیره) لنت ترمزlining                                                     

to lock

 

(اتومبیل-ترمز / دنده و غیره) گیر کردن ، درهم قفل شدن / کردن

 

دنده ی گیر کردهlocked gears                                                   

ترمز قفل شدهlocked brake                                                     

we are running low on gasoline

 

بنزیمان دارد ته می کشد

 

(اتومبیل و غیره) چراغ نور پایین(جلو اتومبیل)low beam                          

(اتومبیل) دینام ، دیناموmagenta                                                   

زیرپایی (فرش کوچکی که جلو صندلی اتومبیل می اندازند)mat                        

(اتومبیل) میزان مصرف بنزین بر حسب مایلmileage                            

مصرف ماشین من کم استI get good mileage on my car             

(انگلیس- عامیانه) ماشین دار ، دارای اتومبیلmobile                            

can you give me a lift if you’re mobile ?

 

اگر اتومبیل داری ممکن است مرا برسانی ؟

 

motor

 

موتور ، انجین ، با وسایل موتوری ، با ماشین ، (با وسیله ی موتوری به ویژه اتومبیل و موتورسیکلت) سفر کردن ، ماشین سواری کردن

 

موتور اتومبیل داغ کرده استthe car’s motor has heated up          

سفر با اتومبیلa motor trip                                                    

وسایل نقلیه ی موتوری ، خودروmotor vehicle                               

اتومبیلmotorcar                                                                  

راننده ، ماشین ران ، ماشین سوارmotorist                                        

(اتومبیل) گلگیرmudguard                                                       

(اتومبیل) اتاق اگزوز ، صداگیرmuffler                                     

neutral(اتومبیل و غیره) دنده ی خلاص ، خلاص                               

the gear is in a neutral positionدنده خلاص است                         

to nip in

 

(انگلیسی – خودمانی – رانندگی / مسابقه) یک وری رفتن ، قیقاج رفتن ، جلوی کسی پیچیدن

 

another car nipped in front of me

 

یک ماشین دیگر پیچید جلوم

 

(اتومبیل و غیره) دنده ی خلاص ، خلاصneutral                                    

دنده را خلاص کردنto put the gear into neutral                       

دنده خلاص استthe gear is in neutral position                      

(در اتومبیل و غیره) کیلومتر شمارodometer                                       

(اتومبیل) کارتل ، تشتک روغن ، کارتر پایینoil pan                                

(اتومبیل) پارک کردن ، ایستpark                                                 

I put the car in park and jumped out to buy a newspaper

 

ماشین را توی دنده ی پارک گذاشتم و پریدم بیرون که یک روزنامه بخرم

 

پارک کردن ممنوعno parking                                                  

parking or even stopping is forbidden at crossroads

 

سر چهار راهها پارک کردن و حتی توقف کردن قدغن است

 

finding a place to park is very difficult inTehran

 

یافتن محل پارک در تهران بسیار دشوار است

 

don’t park your car in front of my garage

 

ماشین خود را جلوی گاراژ  من پارک نکنید

 

سرعت گیری ، شتاب ، کامیون کوچک ، وانتpickup                         

a car with good pickup

  

یک اتومبیل کوچک با قدرت سرعت گیری زیاد

 

stay here , I will come and pick you up

 

همان جا بمانید می آیم شما را می آورم

 

what does Ali’s school ? we’ll drop him and pick him up

 

مدرسه ی علی چی میشه ؟ میبریم و میاریمش

 

(تعمیرگاه اتومبیل و غیره) چال(که اتومبیل روی آن قرار می گیرد)pit                

(اتومبیل) شمع(spark plug هم می گویند)plug                       

 

Device that fits into the cylinder head of an internal-combustion engine and carries two electrodes separated by an air gap, across which current from a high-tension ignition system discharges, creating a spark and igniting the fuel. The electrodes and the insulator separating them must withstand high temperatures ,as well as an electric stress of up to several thousand volts. Spark-gap length affects the energy of the spark, and the shape of the insulator affects the temperature of operation.

 

pull

         

(اتومبیل و غیره) کنار زدن ، کنار کشیدن و توقف کردنto pull in                     

(وسیله ی نقلیه) راه افتادن و رفتنto pull out                                   

pull over(اتومبیل و غیره) به کنار جاده زدن و متوقف کردن                    

the police pulled us overپلیس ما را متوقف کرد                        

to pull upاتومبیل و غیره-به محل معین) راندن                                 

(مثلا در تصادفات رانندگی) داغان کردن ، خرد کردنto rack up               

ماشینم را خرد کردshe racked up my car                                 

اتومبیل قراضه / زهوار در رفته / فکسنیramshackle car                      

(چرخ های اتومبیل) بالانس کردنto realign                                     

از عقب به اتومبیل دیگر زدنto rear-end                                         

او از پشت به ماشین من زدshe rear-ended my car                         

(اتومبیل و کامیون) آیینه ی جلوrearview mirror                            

(تایر اتومبیل) روکش کردن ، لاستیک روکش شدهretread                        

(اتومبیل و غیره-دنده) عقبreverse                                                

دنده عقب گرفتنto put the gear in reverse                              

دنده عقبreverse gear                                                          

road

 

by roadبا ماشین ، از طریق جاده                                                  

the trip takes four hours by train and seven by road

 

این مسافرت با ترن چهار ساعت و با ماشین هفت ساعت طول می کشد

 

run

 

(کشتی / اتومبیل و غیره) خوردن به ، (موتور اتومبیل) درجا به کار انداختن

، خلاص کار کردن

 

اتومبیل به درخت خوردthe car ran into a tree                               

از چراغ قرمز عبور کردنto run a red light                                       

let the engine run for five minutes so that it warms up

بگذار موتور اتومبیل پنج دقیقه درجا کار کند تا گرم شود

 

to run idle

 

(موتور اتومبیل و غیره) خلاص کار کردن ، درجا کار کردن

 

the two cars ran into each other

 

دو اتومبیل با هم شاخ به شاخ شدند

 

(با اتومبیل و غیره) زیر گرفتن ، زیر ماشین رفتنto run over                    

او زیر ماشین رفتshe was run over by a car                            

(اتومبیل و هواپیما و غیره) کمربند ایمنیseat belt                                  

fasten your seat belt, please. it’s on

 

لطفا کمربند ایمنی خود را ببندید. بسته است

          

(اتومبیل و غیره) تعمیر ، رسیدگی ، تعمیر کردنservice                          

فروش و تعمیر اتومبیلauto sale and service                               

Ali serviced my car free of charge

 

علی ماشینم را مجانی تعمیر کرد

 

(به ویژه شیشه ی اتومبیل) نشکن ، خرد نشدنیshatter proof                   

(دنده) عوض کردن ، زدنto shift                                                

زدم توی دنده سهI shifted into third gear                              

مجبور شدم دنده عوض کنمI had to shift gears                            

(به ویژه در تصادف اتومبیل) از پهلو به هم مالیدنto sideswipe       

signal(اتومبیل) راهنما ، راهنما زدن                                                 

left directional signalراهنمای سمت چپ                                   

right directional signalراهنمای سمت راست                              

when we want to make a right turn, we put our directional signal on, then we slow right down, a glance at our mirror, then off we go

 

زمانی که بخواهیم گردش به راست کنیم ،  بررسی می کنیم که راهنما به سمت بالا باشد ، سپس از سرعت خود کاسته ، نیم نگاهی به آینه انداخته ، بعد حرکت می کنیم

 

قطعه ی یدکیspare                                                                

لوازم یدکیspare part                                                           

لاستیک زاپاسspare tire                                                        

(دوچرخه و اتومبیل و غیره) دندهspeed                                                  

دو چرخه ی ده دنده ای a ten-speed bicycle                             

a truck with five forward speeds

 

کامیون با پنج دنده ی جلو

 

اتومبیل کورسیsports car                                                        

(موتور و غیره) خاموشی ، خاموش کردن / شدنstall                               

اتومبیل خاموش شدthe car went into a stall                             

موتور  مرتبا خاموش می شدthe engine kept stalling                   

starter(در موتورهای درون سوز) استارت ، استارتر                               

(اتومبیل / کشتی و غیره) راندن ، بردن ، هدایت کردن / شدنsteer              

اتومبیل راندنto steer a car                                                       

اتومبیلی که راندن آن آسان استa car that steers easily                  

(اتومبیل) فرمان ، (کشتی) سکانsteering wheel                              

گاز بده ، تند تر بروstep on it                                                      

(اتومبیل) دنده ی دستیstick shift                                       

stop(اتومبیل) توقف کردن ، ایستادن ، ایست کردن ، ایست ، توقف            

several buses stop hereچندین اتوبوس اینجا توقف می کنند           

the car stopped in front of the red light

 

اتومبیل جلو چراغ قرمز ایست کرد

 

the police stopped the robber’s car

 

پلیس اتومبیل دزدان را متوقف کرد

 

a short stopتوقف کوتاه                                                            

stop signعلامت توقف ، ایست نشان                                             

when the traffic light is red, we should stop just before the zebra crossing. once the pedestrians either cleared or there were none, then we can proceed forward

 

زمانی که چراغ راهنمایی قرمز است ما باید درست قبل از خط عابر پیاده توقف کنیم. وقتی که عابرین پیاده (از خیابان) عبور کردند و یا عابری وجود نداشت می توانیم به جلو حرکت کنیم

  

 

stop light

    

(اتومبیل و کامیون) چراغ عقب ، چراغ ایست نما ، چراغ قرمز

         

(اتومبیل) پنجره ی آفتابیsunroof                                                    

برگ جریمه دادن ، (اتومبیل را) جریمه کردنto tag                                

cars tagged for speeding

 

اتومبیل هایی که به خاطر سرعت زیاد جریمه می شوند

 

چراغ عقب(اتومبیل / کامیون و غیره)tail light                                    

(اتومبیل) لوله ی اگزوز ، دودکش اتومبیلtail pipe                                

(اتومبیل) باکtank                                                                 

باک بنزینgasoline tank                                                      

(تایر اتومبیل و دوچرخه و غیره) عاج ، برجستگیthread                 

 

throw

 

to throw in(کلاچ و دنده) گرفتن                                                  

to throw out(کلاچ) رها کردن                                                            

(وسایل نقلیه) جریمهticket                                                 

have you ever gotten a parking ticket ?

 

آیا هرگز برای توقف ممنوع جریمه شده اید؟

 

(اتومبیل و هواپیما و غیره) تایر ، لاستیک (انگلیس: tyre)tire                      

لاستیک دوچرخهbicycle tire                                                      

تایر را باد کردنto put air in a tire                                              

باد تایر را خالی کردنto let the air out of a tire                          

زنجیر چرخ اتومبیلtire chain                                                         

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a tire (in American English) or tyre (in British English) is a ring-shaped covering that fits around a wheel rim to protect it and enable better vehicle performance by providing a flexible cushion that absorbs shock while keeping the wheel in close contact with the ground. the word itself may be derived from the word "tie", referring to the outer steel ring part of a wooden cart wheel that ties the wood segments together

 

تایر یک پوشش حلقه مانند است که پیرامون و حاشیه ی چرخ قرار می گیرد تا از آن محافظت کرده و با فراهم کردن نرمی و الاستیک بودن قابل انعطاف که دارد باعث می شود تا ضربات تماسی چرخ با زمین را مانند فنر جذب کرده و عملکرد بهتری به وسیله ی نقلیه بدهد.

the fundamental materials of modern tires are rubber and fabric along with other compound chemicals. they consist of a tread and a body. the tread provides traction while the body ensures support. before rubber was invented, the first versions of tires were simply bands of metal that fitted around wooden wheels in order to prevent wear and tear. today, the vast majority of tires are pneumatic, comprising a doughnut-shaped body of cords and wires encased in rubber and generally filled with compressed air to form an inflatable cushion. pneumatic tires are used on many types of vehicles, such as bicycles, motorcycles, cars, trucks, earthmovers, and aircraft.

مواد اولیه در ساختمان تایرهای امروزی ، از جنس لاستیک و الیاف نخ(نخ های نایلونی و ابریشمی و فایبرگلاس) به همراه دیگر مواد شیمیایی(مثل دوده) می باشد. تایرها از بدنه و آج تشکیل شده اند. آج کشش(traction) و بدنه پایه و ستون آن را فراهم می کند. قبل از آن که لاستیک ابداع شود ، اولین تایرها نوارهای ساده ی فلزی بودند که در اطراف چرخ های چوبی به منظور جلوگیری از سایش و پارگی آنها نصب می شدند. امروزه ، اکثریت تایرها ، بادی و تحت فشار هوا هستند ، که بدنه ی دوناتی شکل آنها از تارها و وایرها که در لاستیک پوشانده شده (قرار داده شده اند) و معمولا از هوای فشرده پر می شوند تا تشکیل یک کوشن بادکردنی را بدهند. تایرهای بادی در بسیاری از وسایل نقلیه از قبیل دوچرخه ، موتورسیکلت ، اتومبیل ها ، کامیون ها ، بولدوزورها و هواپیما استفاده می شوند.

iron tires:

the earliest tires were bands of iron (later steel), placed on wooden wheels, used on carts and wagons. The tire would be heated in a forge fire, placed over the wheel and quenched, causing the metal to contract and fit tightly on the wheel. A skilled worker, known as a wheelwright, carried out this work. The outer ring served to “tie” the wheel segments together for use, providing also a wear-resistant surface to the perimeter of the wheel. The word “tire” thus emerged as a variant spelling to refer to the metal bands used to tie wheels.

rubber tires:

 

The first practical pneumatic tire was made by John Boyd Dunlop, a Scot, in 1887 for his son’s bicycle, in an effort to prevent the headaches his son had while riding on rough roads (Dunlop’s patent was later declared invalid because of prior art by fellow Scot Robert William Thomson). Dunlop is credited with “realizing rubber could withstand the wear and tear of being a tire while retaining its resilience”

 

pneumatic tires are made of a flexible elastomer material, such as rubber, with reinforcing materials such as fabric and wire. tire companies were first started in the early 20th century, and grew in tandem with the auto industry. Today, over 1 billion tires are produced annually, in over 400 tire factories, with the three top tire makers commanding a 60% global market share

Pneumatic tires are manufactured according to relatively standardized processes and machinery, in around 450 tire factories in the world. Over 1 billion tires are manufactured annually, making the tire industry the majority consumer of natural rubber. Tire factories start with bulk raw materials such as rubber, carbon black, and chemicals and produce numerous specialized components that are assembled and cured.

 

 

 

tread:

the tread is the part of the tire which comes in contact with the road surface. the tread is a thick rubber, or rubber/composite compound formulated to provide an appropriate level of traction that does not wear away too quickly. the tread pattern is characterized by the geometrical shape of the grooves, lugs, voids and sipes. grooves run circumferentially around the tire, and are needed to channel away water. lugs are that portion of the tread design that contacts the road surface. voids are spaces between lugs that allow the lugs to flex and evacuate water. tread patterns feature non-symmetrical (or non-uniform) lug sizes circumferentially in order to minimize noise levels at discrete frequencies. sipes are valleys cut across the tire, usually perpendicular to the grooves, which allow the water from the grooves to escape to the sides in an effort to prevent hydroplaning.

آج تایر:

آج بخشی از تایر بوده که در تماس با سطح جاده قرار می گیرد. آج یک لاستیک ضخیم ، یا ترکیب کامپوزیتی/لاستیکی برای فراهم کردن کشش مناسب که به سرعت دچار سایش نمی شود. طرح آج بوسیله ی شکل هندسی شیارها ، lugs ، حفره ها(voids) ، و spies مشخص می شود. شیارها پیرامون تایر قرار می گیرند. lug ها بخشی از طرح آج هستند که با سطح جاده تماس برقرار می کنند. void ها فضاهای خالی بین lug ها هستند که اجازه می دهند تا lug ها آب را تخلیه کنند و کشیده و منقبض شوند. ویژگی طرح های آج با اندازه lug های غیرمتقارن و غیریکنواخت است تا سروصدا را در بسامدهای جدا کاهش دهد. sipe ها ، فرورفتگی هایی هستند که تایر را به صورت عرضی قطع می کنند ، معمولا عمود بر شیارها هستند و امکان تخلیه(خروج) آب از شیارها به سمت دیواره ها را برای جلوگیری از لیزخوردن(در جاده های خیس) را فراهم می کنند.

Treads are often designed to meet specific product marketing positions. High performance tires have small void ratios to provide more rubber in contact with the road for higher traction, but may be compounded with softer rubber that provides better traction, but wears quickly. Mud and snow (M&S) tires are designed with higher void ratios to channel away rain and mud, while providing better gripping performance. Specialized tires will always work better than general/all purpose/all weather tires when being used in the conditions the specialized tires are designed for.

Tread lug: Tread lugs provide the contact surface necessary to provide traction. As the tread lug enters the road contact area, or footprint, it is compressed. As it rotates through the footprint it is deformed circumferentially. As it exits the footprint, it recovers to its original shape. During the deformation and recovery cycle the tire exerts variable forces into the vehicle, These forces are described as Force Variation

Tread voids provide space for the lug to flex and deform as it enters and exits the footprint. Voids also provide channels for rainwater, mud, and snow to be channeled away from the footprint. The void ratio is the void area of the tire divided by the entire tread area. Low void areas have high contact area and therefore higher traction on clean, dry pavement.

The rain groove is a design element of the tread pattern specifically arranged to channel water away from the footprint. Rain grooves are circumferential in most truck tires. Many high performance passenger tires feature rain grooves that are angled from the center toward the sides of the tire.Some tire manufacturers claim that their tread pattern is designed to actively pump water out from under the tire by the action of the tread flexing.This results in a smoother ride in different types of weather.

Sipe Tread lugs often feature small narrow voids, or sipes, that improve the flexibility of the lug to deform as it traverses the footprint area. This reduces shear stress in the lug and reduces heat build up. Sipes also provide greater traction in wet or icy conditions.

Wear bar Wear bars (or wear indicators) are raised features located at the bottom of the tread grooves that indicate the tire has reached its wear limit. When the tread lugs are worn to the point that the wear bars connect across the lugs, the tires are fully worn and should be taken out of service. Most wear bars indicate a remaining tread depth of 2/32's of an inch and are deemed "worn out" at that point.

The contact patch, or footprint, of the tire, is merely the area of the tread which is in contact with the road surface. This is the area which transmits forces between the tire and the road via friction. The length-to-width ratio of the contact patch will affect steering and cornering behavior.

Bead: The bead is that part of the tire which contacts the rim on the wheel. The bead is typically reinforced with steel wire and compounded of high strength, low flexibility rubber. The bead seats tightly against the two rims on the wheel to ensure that a tubeless tire holds air without leakage. The bead fit is tight to ensure the tire does not shift circumferentially as the wheel rotates. The width of the rim in relationship to the tire is a factor in the handling characteristics of an automobile, because the rim supports the tire's profile.

The sidewall is that part of the tire that bridges between the tread and bead. The sidewall is largely rubber but reinforced with fabric or steel cords that provide for strength and flexibility. The sidewall transmits the torque applied by the drive axle to the tread in order to create traction. The sidewall, in conjunction with the air inflation, also supports the load of the vehicle. Sidewalls are molded with manufacturer-specific detail, government mandated warning labels, and other consumer information, and sometimes decorative ornamentation, like whitewalls.

Shoulder: The shoulder is that part of the tire at the edge of the tread as it makes transition to the sidewall

inner tubes: Almost all bicycle tires, many motorcycle tires, and many tires for large vehicles such as buses, heavy trucks and tractors are designed for use with inner tubes. Inner tubes are torus-shaped balloons made from an impermeable material, such as soft, elastic synthetic rubber, to prevent air leakage. The inner tubes are inserted into the tire and inflated to retain air pressure.

Tires are mounted to wheels that bolt to the hub. The beads of the tire are held on the wheel's rim largely by the internal tire force from the air pressure. Automotive wheels are typically made from pressed and welded steel, or a composite of lightweight metal alloys, such as aluminum or magnesium. These alloy wheels may be either cast or forged. A decorative hubcap and trim ring may be placed over the wheel.

valve stem: The valve stem is a tube made of steel or rubber with a metal valve used to inflate the tire with air. Valve stems usually protrude through the wheel for easy access for inflation. Tires are inflated through a valve, typically a Schrader valve on automobiles and most bicycle tires, or a Presta valve on high performance bicycles. The rubber in valve stems eventually degrades. Replacement of the valve stem at regular intervals reduces the chance of failure.

Belted bias:

A belted bias tire starts with two or more bias-plies to which stabilizer belts are bonded directly beneath the tread. This construction provides smoother ride that is similar to the bias tire, while lessening rolling resistance because the belts increase tread stiffness. The plies and belts are at different angles, which improves performance compared to non-belted bias tires. The belts may be cord or steel.

Radial tire construction utilizes body ply cords extending from the beads and across the tread so that the cords are laid at approximately right angles to the centerline of the tread, and parallel to each other, as well as stabilizer belts directly beneath the tread. The belts may be cord or steel. The advantages of this construction include longer tread life, better steering control, and lower rolling resistance. Disadvantages of the radial tire include a harder ride at low speeds on rough roads and in the context of off-roading, decreased "self-cleaning" ability and lower grip ability at low speeds

Solid

Many tires used in industrial and commercial applications are non-pneumatic, and are manufactured from solid rubber and plastic compounds via molding operations. Solid tires include those used for lawn mowers, skateboards, golf carts, scooters, and many types of light industrial vehicles, carts, and trailers. One of the most common applications for solid tires is for material handling equipment (forklifts). Such tires are installed by means of a hydraulic tire press.

Semi-pneumatic tires have a hollow center, but they are not pressurized. They are light-weight, low-cost, puncture proof, and provide cushioning.[11] These tires often come as a complete assembly with the wheel and even integral ball bearings. They are used on lawn mowers, wheelchairs, and wheelbarrows. They can also be rugged, typically used in industrial applications, and are designed to not pull off their rim under use.

Tires that are hollow but are not pressurized have also been designed for automotive use, such as the Tweel (a portmanteau of tire and wheel) which is an experimental tire design being developed at Michelin. The outer casing is rubber as in ordinary radial tires, but the interior has special compressible polyurethane springs to contribute to a comfortable ride. Besides the impossibility of going flat, the tires are intended to combine the comfort offered by higher-profile tires (with tall sidewalls) with the resistance to cornering forces offered by low profile tires. They have not yet been delivered for broad market use.

Tire pressure monitoring systems (TPMS) are electronic systems that monitor the tire pressures on individual wheels on a vehicle, and alert the driver when the pressure goes below a warning limit. There are several types of designs to monitor tire pressure. Some actually measure the air pressure, and some make indirect measurements, such as gauging when the relative size of the tire changes due to lower air pressure.

Inflation pressure Tires are specified by the vehicle manufacturer with a recommended inflation pressure, which permits safe operation within the specified load rating and vehicle loading. Most tires are stamped with a maximum pressure rating (forUSAonly). For passenger vehicles and light trucks, the tires should be inflated to what the vehicle manufacturer recommends, which is usually located on a decal just inside the driver's door or in the vehicle owners handbook. Tires should not be inflated to the pressure on the sidewall; this is the maximum pressure, rather than the recommended pressure.

If tire pressure is too high, the tire contact patch is reduced. This decreases rolling resistance, but does not necessarily decrease braking distance. In addition, ride comfort is reduced and the center of the tread may wear more quickly than the shoulder.

If tire pressure is too low, the tire contact patch is increased. This increases rolling resistance, tire flexing, and friction between the road and tire. Underinflation can lead to tire overheating, premature tread wear, and tread separation in severe cases. Significant underinflation can also increase braking distance.

Load rating Tires are specified by the manufacturer with a maximum load rating. Loads exceeding the rating can result in unsafe conditions that can lead to steering instability and even rupture. For a table of load ratings, see tire codes.

Speed rating The speed rating denotes the maximum speed at which a tire is designed to be operated. For passenger vehicles these ratings range from 99 mph (160 km/h) to 186 mph (300 km/h). For a table of speed ratings.

Replacing a tire on a vehicle with one with a lower speed rating than originally specified by the vehicle manufacturer will often render the insurance invalid.

Service rating Tires (especially in theUSA) are often given service ratings, mainly used on bus and truck tires. Some ratings are for long-haul, and some for stop-start multi-drop type work. Tires designed to run 500+ miles per day carrying heavy loads require special specifications.

 

Rotation Tires may exhibit irregular wear patterns once installed on a vehicle and partially worn. Furthermore, front-wheel drive vehicles will wear the front tires at a greater rate compared to the rears. Tire rotation is the procedure of moving tires to different car positions, such as front-to-rear, in order to even out the wear, thereby extending the life of the tire.

When mounted on the vehicle, the wheel and tire may not be perfectly aligned to the direction of travel, and therefore may exhibit irregular wear. If the discrepancy in alignment is large, then the irregular wear will become quite substantial if left uncorrected.

Wheel alignment is the procedure for checking and correcting this condition through adjustment of camber, caster and toe angles. These settings also affect the handling characteristics of the vehicle.

Retread:

Tires that are fully worn can be re-manufactured to replace the worn tread. This is known as retreading or recapping, a process of buffing away the worn tread and applying a new tread.[17] Retreading is economical for truck tires because the cost of replacing the tread is less than the price of a new tire. Retreading passenger tires is less economical because the cost of retreading is high compared to the price of new cheap tires, but favorable compared to high-end brands.

Worn tires can be retreaded by two methods, the mold or hot cure method and the pre-cure or cold one. The mold cure method involves the application of raw rubber on the previously buffed and prepared casing, which is later cured in matrices. During the curing period, vulcanization takes place and the raw rubber bonds to the casing, taking the tread shape of the matrix. On the other hand, the pre-cure method involves the application of a ready-made tread band on the buffed and prepared casing, which later is cured in an autoclave so that vulcanization can occur.

During the retreading process, retread technicians must ensure the casing is in the best condition possible, in order to minimize the possibility of a casing failure. Casings with problems such as capped tread, tread separation, unrepairable cuts, corroded belts or sidewall damage, or any run-flat or skidded tires, will be rejected.

In most situations, retread tires can be driven under the same conditions and at the same speeds as new tires with no loss in safety or comfort. The percentage of retread failures should be about the same as for new tire failures, but many drivers, including truckers, are guilty of not maintaining proper air pressure on a regular basis, and, if a tire is abused (overloaded, underinflated, or mismatched to the other tire on a set of duals), then that tire (new or recapped) will fail.

Many commercial trucking companies put retreads only on trailers, using only new tires on their steering and drive wheels. This procedure increases the driver's chance of maintaining control in case of problems with a retreaded tire.

Performance characteristics:

Tread wear Tread wear, also known as tire wear, is caused by friction between the tire and the road surface. Government legal standards prescribe the minimum allowable tread depth for safe operation.

There are several types of abnormal tread wear. Poor wheel alignment can cause excessive wear of the innermost or outermost ribs. Gravel roads, rocky terrain, and other rough terrain will cause accelerated wear. Over inflation above the sidewall max can cause excessive wear to the center of the tread. However, inflating up to the sidewall limit will not cause excessive wear in the center of the tread. Modern tires have steel belts built in to prevent this. Under inflation causes excessive wear to the outer ribs. Quite often the placard pressure is too low and most tires are underinflated as a result.Unbalanced wheels can cause uneven tire wear, as the rotation may not be perfectly circular. Tire manufacturers and car companies have mutually established standards for tread wear testing that include measurement parameters for tread loss profile, lug count, and heel-toe wear.

Dry traction Dry traction is measure of the tire’s ability to deliver traction, or grip, under dry conditions. Dry traction increases in proportion to the tread contact area. Dry traction is also a function of the tackiness of the rubber compound.

Wet traction Wet traction is measure of the tire's ability to deliver traction, or grip, under wet conditions. Wet traction is improved by the tread design's ability to channel water out of the tire footprint and reduce hydroplaning. However, tires with a circular cross-section, such as those found on racing bicycles and motorcycles, when properly inflated have a sufficiently small footprint to not be susceptible to hydroplaning. For such tires, it is observed that fully slick tires will give superior traction on both wet and dry pavement.[20]

Force variation The tire tread and sidewall elements undergo deformation and recovery as they enter and exit the footprint. Since the rubber is elastomeric, it is compressed during this cycle. As the rubber deforms and recovers it imparts cyclical forces into the vehicle. These variations are collectively referred to as Tire Uniformity. Tire Uniformity is characterized by Radial Force Variation (RFV), Lateral Force Variation (LFV), and Tangential Force Variation. Radial and Lateral Force Variation is measured on a Force Variation Machine at the end of the manufacturing process. Tires outside the specified limits for RFV and LFV are rejected. In addition, Tire Uniformity Machines are used to measure geometric parameters including Radial Runout, Lateral Runout, and Sidewall Bulge in the tire factory at the end of the manufacturing process as a quality check. In the late 1990s Hunter Engineering introduced the GSP9700 Road Force balancer which is equipped with a load roller similar to the Force Variation Machine used at the factory to grade tire uniformity. This machine can find the best position for the tire on a given wheel so the over-all assembly is as round as possible.

Balance When a wheel and tire is rotated, it will exert a centrifugal force characteristic of its center of gravity. This cyclical force is referred to as balance, and a non-uniform force is referred to as imbalance or unbalance. Tires are checked at the point of manufacture for excessive static imbalance and dynamic imbalance using automatic Tire Balance Machines. Tires are checked again in the auto assembly plant or tire retail shop after mounting the tire to the wheel. Assemblies that exhibit excessive imbalance are corrected by applying balance weights to the wheels to counteract the tire/wheel imbalance.

To facilitate proper balancing, most high performance tire manufacturers place red and yellow marks on the sidewalls to enable the best possible match-mounting of the tire/wheel assembly. There are two methods of match-mounting high performance tire to wheel assemblies using these red (Uniformity) or yellow (Weight) marks[21].

Centrifugal growth A tire rotating at higher speeds will tend to develop a larger diameter, due to centrifugal forces that force the tread rubber away from the axis of rotation. As the tire diameter grows the tire width decreases. This centrifugal growth can cause rubbing of the tire against the vehicle at high speeds. Motorcycle tires are often designed with reinforcements aimed at minimizing centrifugal growth

Rolling resistance:

Rolling resistance is the resistance to rolling caused by deformation of the tire in contact with the road surface. As the tire rolls, tread enters the contact area and is deformed flat to conform to the roadway. The energy required to make the deformation depends on the inflation pressure, rotating speed, and numerous physical properties of the tire structure, such as spring force and stiffness. Tire makers seek lower rolling resistance tire constructions in order to improve fuel economy in cars and especially trucks, where rolling resistance accounts for a high proportion of fuel consumption.

The pneumatic tire also has the more important effect of vastly reducing rolling resistance compared to a solid tire. Because the internal air pressure acts in all directions, a pneumatic tire is able to "absorb" bumps in the road as it rolls over them without experiencing a reaction force opposite to the direction of travel, as is the case with a solid (or foam-filled) tire. The difference between the rolling resistance of a pneumatic and solid tire is easily felt when propelling wheelchairs or baby buggies fitted with either type so long as the terrain has a significant roughness in relation to the wheel diameter.

Stopping distance The use of performance oriented tires, which have a tread pattern and rubber compounds designed to grip the road surface, usually has slightly shorter stopping distances. However, specific braking tests are necessary for data beyond generalizations.

TKPH Ton kilometre per hour (TKPH) is the measurement of the work load of a tire and is used for monitoring its work so that it is not put under undue stress which may lead to its premature failure.[22] The measurement's appellation and units are the same. The recent shortage and increasing cost of tires for heavy equipment has made TKPH an important parameter in tire selection and equipment maintenance for the mining industry. For this reason tire manufacturers of large earth-moving and mining vehicles assign TKPH ratings to their tires based on their size, construction, tread type, and rubber compound.[23][24] The rating is based on the weight and speed that the tire can handle without overheating and causing it to deteriorate prematurely. The equivalent measure used in the United States is ton mile per hour (TMPH).

DOT code

In the United States, the DOT Code is an alphanumeric character sequence molded into the sidewall of the tire for purposes of tire identification. The DOT Code is mandated by the US Department of Transportation. The DOT Code is useful in identifying tires in a product recall.

The DOT Code begins with the letters "DOT" followed by a plant code (two numbers or letters) that identifies where it was manufactured. The last four numbers represent the week and year the tire was built. A three-digit code was used for tires manufactured before the year 2000. For example, 178 means it was manufactured in the 17th week of 8th year of the decade. In this case it means 1988. For tires manufactured in the 1990s, the same code holds true, but there is a little triangle (Δ) after the DOT code. Thus, a tire manufactured in the 17th week of 1998 would have the code 178Δ. In 2000, the code was switched to a 4-digit code. Same rules apply, so for example, 3003 means the tire was manufactured in the 30th week of 2003.

Vehicle applications:

Tires are classified into several standard types, based on the type of vehicle they serve. Since the manufacturing process, raw materials, and equipment vary according to the tire type, it is common for tire factories to specialize in one or more tire types. In most markets, factories that manufacture passenger and light truck radial tires are separate and distinct from those that make aircraft or OTR tires.

High performance:

High performance tires are designed for use at higher speeds, and more often, a more "sporty" driving style. They feature a softer rubber compound for improved traction, especially on high speed cornering. The trade off of this softer rubber is shorter tread life.

High performance street tires sometimes sacrifice wet weather handling by having shallower water channels to provide more actual rubber tread surface area for dry weather performance.[citation needed] The ability to provide a high level of performance on both wet and dry pavement varies widely among manufacturers, and even among tire models of the same manufacturer. This is an area of active research and development, as well as marketing.

Mud and Snow, (or M+S, or M&S), is a classification for specific winter tires designed to provide improved performance under low temperature conditions, compared to all-season tires. The tread compound is usually softer than that used in tires for summer conditions, thus providing better grip on ice and snow, but wears more quickly at higher temperatures. Tires may have well above average numbers of sipes in the tread pattern to grip the ice.

Dedicated winter tires will bear the "Mountain/Snowflake Pictograph" if designated as a winter/snow tire by the American Society for Testing & Materials. Winter tires will typically also carry the designation MS, M&S, or the words MUD AND SNOW (but see All-season tires, below).

Some winter tires may be designed to accept the installation of metal studs for additional traction on icy roads. The studs also roughen the ice, thus providing better friction between the ice and the soft rubber in winter tires. Use of studs is regulated in most countries, and even prohibited in some locales due to the increased road wear caused by studs. Typically, studs are never used on heavier vehicles. Studded tires are used in the upper tier classes of ice racing and rallying.

Other winter tires rely on factors other than studding for traction on ice, e.g. highly porous or hydrophilic rubber that adheres to the wet film on the ice surface.

Some jurisdictions may from time to time require snow tires, or traction aids (e.g. tire chains) on vehicles driven in certain areas during extreme conditions.

Mud tires are specialty tires with large, chunky tread patterns designed to bite into muddy surfaces. The large, open design also allows mud to clear quickly from between the lugs. Mud terrain tires also tend to be wider than other tires, to spread the weight of the vehicle over a greater area to prevent the vehicle from sinking too deeply into the mud. However in reasonable amounts of mud and snow, tires should be thinner. Due to them having a thinner wheel base, the tire will have more pressure on the road surface, thus allowing the tires to penetrate the snow layer and grip harder snow or road surface beneath. This does not compensate when the snow is too deep for such penetration.

All-terrain tires are typically used on SUVs and light trucks. These tires often have stiffer sidewalls for greater resistance against puncture when traveling off-road, the tread pattern offers wider spacing than all-season tires to remove mud from the tread. Many tires in the all-terrain category are designed primarily for on-road use, particularly all-terrain tires that are originally sold with the vehicle.

spare tire:

Some vehicles carry a spare tire, already mounted on a wheel, to be used in the event of flat tire or blowout. Minispare, or "space-saver spare" tires are smaller than normal tires to save on trunk/boot space, gas mileage, weight and cost. Minispares have a short life expectancy, and low speed rating.

run flat tire:

Several innovative designs have been introduced that permit tires to run safely with no air for a limited range at a limited speed. These tires typically feature strong, load-supporting sidewalls. An infamous example of an alternate run flat technology has plastic load-bearing inserts attached to the rim instead of the reinforced sidewalls.

A disadvantage is that run flat tires cannot be repaired if a puncture occurs, this is due to manufacturer's informing the automotive industry that you cannot tell what kind of state the sidewall is in due to the compacted sidewall of rubber.

 

Heavy duty tires are also referred to as Truck/Bus tires. These are the tire sizes used on vehicles such as commercial freight trucks, dump trucks, and passenger buses. Truck tires are sub-categorized into specialties according to vehicle position such as steering, drive axle, and trailer. Each type is designed with the reinforcements, material compounds, and tread patterns that best optimize the tire performance.

Off-the-road (OTR):

OTR tires being transported

The OTR tire classification includes tires for construction vehicles such as wheel loaders, backhoes, graders, trenchers, and the like; as well as large mining trucks. OTR tires can be of either bias or radial construction although the industry is trending toward increasing use of radial. Bias OTR tires are built with a large number of reinforcing plies to withstand severe service conditions and high loads.

Dramatically increasing commodity prices has led to shortages of new tires. As a consequence, multi-million dollar trucks can be idled for lack of tires, costing mines millions of dollars in lost productivity. This has led to a stronger effort to recycle old OTR tires. As of 2008, a new OTR tire can cost up to $50,000; retread tires are sold at half the price of new tires, and last 80% as long.[26] Retreading an OTR tire is labor intensive. First, the retreading technician must place the old tire in a buffing machine to remove what remains of the old tread; "skiving" follows this, which is the removal, by hand, of material the buffing misses. Next, the technician must inspect the tire, repairing defects. Lastly, the technician fills holes in the tire with rubber, applies a cement gum adhesive, and places the tire on a machine which will apply a new tread.[27]

Racing:

NASCAR tires

Racing tires are highly specialized according to vehicle and race track conditions. This classification includes tires for drag racing,Auto-x, drifting, Time Attack, Road Racing - as well as the large-market race tires for Formula One, IndyCar, NASCAR, rallying, MotoGP and the like. Tires are specially engineered for specific race tracks according to surface conditions, cornering loads, and track temperature. Racing tires often are engineered to minimum weight targets, so tires for a 500 mile race may run only 100 miles before a tire change. Some tire makers invest heavily in race tire development as part of the company's marketing strategy and a means of advertising to attract customers.

Racing tires often are not legal for normal highway use.

The Industrial tire classification is a bit of a catch-all category and includes pneumatic and non-pneumatic tires for specialty industrial and construction equipment such as skid loaders and fork lift trucks.

Aircraft tires are designed to withstand extremely heavy loads for short durations. The number of tires required for aircraft increases with the weight of the plane (because the weight of the airplane is distributed better). Aircraft tire tread patterns are designed to facilitate stability in high crosswind conditions, to channel water away to prevent hydroplaning, and for braking effect. Aircraft tires are usually inflated with nitrogen or helium in order to minimize expansion and contraction from extreme changes in ambient temperature and pressure experienced during flight.[citation needed] Dry nitrogen expands at the same rate as other dry atmospheric gases, but common compressed air sources may contain moisture, which increases the expansion rate with temperature. Aircraft tires generally operate at high pressures, up to 200 psi (13.8 bar) for airliners, and even higher for business jets. Tests of airline aircraft tires have shown that they are able to sustain pressures of maximum 800 psi (55.2 bar) before bursting. During the test the tires have to be filled with water, instead of helium or nitrogen which is the common content of aircraft tires, to prevent the test room being blown apart by the energy when the tire bursts.

Aircraft tires also include heat fuses, designed to melt at a certain temperature. Tires often overheat if maximum braking is applied during a rejected takeoff or an emergency landing. The fuses provide a safer failure mode that prevents tire explosions by deflating in a controlled manner, thus minimizing damage to aircraft and objects in the surrounding environment.

The main purpose of requiring that an inert gas, such as nitrogen, be used instead of air, for inflation of tires on certain transport category airplanes is prompted by at least three cases in which the oxygen in air-filled tires combined with volatile gases given off by a severely overheated tire and exploded upon reaching autoignition temperature. The use of an inert gas for tire inflation will eliminate the possibility of a tire explosion.[28]

There are many different types of motorcycle tires:

Sport Touring - these tires are generally not used for high cornering loads, but for long straights, good for riding across the country.

Sport Street - these tires are for aggressive street riders that spend most of their time carving corners on public roadways. These tires do not have a long life, but in turn have better traction in high speed cornering. Street and sport street tires have good traction even when cold, but when warmed too much, can actually lose traction as their internal temperature increases.

Track or Slick - these tires are for track days or races. They have more of a triangular form, which in turn gives a larger contact patch while leaned over. These tires are not recommended for the street by manufacturers, and are known to have a shorter life on the street. Due to the triangulation of the tire, there will be less contact patch in the center, causing the tire to develop a flat spot quicker when used to ride on straightaways for long periods of time and have no tread so they lose almost all grip in wet conditions. Racing slicks are also made of a harder rubber compound and do not provide as much traction as street tires until warmed to a higher internal temperature than street tires normally operate at. Most street riding will not put a sufficient amount of friction on the tire to maintain the optimal tire temperature, especially in colder climates and in spring and fall.

Sound and vibration characteristics:

Roadway noise:

The design of treads and the interaction of specific tire types with the roadway surface type produces considerable effect upon sound levels or noise pollution emanating from moving vehicles. These sound intensities increase with higher vehicle speeds.[29] There is a considerable range in acoustical intensities produced depending upon the specific tire tread design and its interaction with the roadway surface type. There is a study "under development" which will be able to predict the interior noise due to the vibrations of a rolling tire structurally transmitted to the hub of a vehicle"

safety:

Proper vehicle safety requires specific attention to inflation pressure, tread depth, and general condition of the tires. Over-inflated tires run the risk of explosive decompression (they may pop). On the other hand, under-inflated tires have a higher rolling resistance and suffer from overheating and rapid tread wear particularly on the edges of the tread. Excessive tire wear will reduce steering and braking response[citation needed], and tires worn down past their safety margins and into the casing run the very real risk of rupturing. Also, certain combinations of cross ply and radial tires on different wheels of the same vehicle can lead to vehicle instability, and may also be illegal. Tire inflation pressure and tread depth should be checked regularly in accordance with the vehicle manufacturer’s recommendations.

Tires should be repaired only at experienced tire repair shops, and in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations.

A common test in the United Statesto check for excessive tire wear is to insert a one-cent coin into the tread to see if it has been reduced to 1/16 or 2/32 of an inch. If part of Lincoln's head is covered by the tread, the tire has a legal amount of tread. If all of his head can be seen, however, it is time to replace the tire. It's important to note that a tire that just passes the "penny test" could be still be dangerous when driving in snow and could increase the risk of hydroplaning.

Outside of the United States, the head of an unused match can be inserted into the tire's tread. If the tread is at any point below 3/4 of the head, the tire should be replaced. This test is most common in the EU, Australasia, and Asia.

Also, US and European tires have 'wear bars', or "Tread Wear Indicators" (TWI) moulded into the grooves of the tire. When these become flush with the tops of the remaining tread, the tire is at the legal limit of normal safety and must be replaced. Certain European countries have stricter limits on tread wear compared to other European countries.

A flat tire occurs when a tire deflates to the point where the metal of the wheel rim comes to ground level. This can occur as a result of normal wear-and-tear, a leak, or more serious damage. A tire which has lost sufficient pressure to cause it to become distorted at the bottom will impair the stability of the vehicle and may damage the tire further if it is driven in this condition. The tire should be changed and/or repaired before it becomes completely flat. Continuing to drive a vehicle with a flat tire will damage the tire beyond repair, possibly damage the rim and vehicle, and put the occupants and other vehicles in danger. A flat tire or low-pressure tire should be considered an emergency situation, requiring immediate attention to rectify the problem. (Some tires, known as "run-flat" tires, have either extremely stiff sidewalls or a resilient filler to allow driving a limited distance while flat, usually at reduced speed, without permanent damage or hazard.)

Hydroplaning, also known as aquaplaning, is the condition where a layer of water builds up between the tire and road surface. Hydroplaning occurs when the tread pattern cannot channel away enough water at an adequate rate to ensure a dry footprint area. When hydroplaning occurs, the tire effectively "floats" above the road surface on a cushion of water - and loses traction, braking and steering, creating a very unsafe driving condition. When hydroplaning occurs, there is considerably less responsiveness of the steering wheel. The correction of this unsafe condition is to gradually reduce speed, by merely lifting off the accelerator/gas pedal.

Hydroplaning becomes more prevalent with wider tires; it is of virtually no concern to bicycle tires under normal riding conditions.

Dangers of aged tires:

Research and tests show that as tires age, they begin to dry out and become potentially dangerous, even if unused. Aged tires may appear to have similar properties to newly manufactured tires, but rubber degrades over time, and once the vehicle is traveling at high speeds (i.e. on a freeway) the tread could peel off, leading to severe loss of control. In tropical climates, such as Singapore, tires degrade sooner than in temperate climates, and more care should be taken in these climates to ensure that tires do not fail.[citation needed] Also, tires on seldom-used trailers are at the greatest risk of age-failure, but some tires are built to withstand idleness, usually with nylon reinforcement.

Many automakers recommend replacing tires after six years, and several tire manufacturers (Bridgestone, Michelin) have called for tires to be removed from service 10 years after the date of manufacture. However, an investigative report by Brian Ross on ABC's 20/20 news magazine found that many major retailers such as Goodyear, Wal-Mart, and Sears were selling tires that had been produced six or more years ago. Currently, no law for aged tires exists in the United States.[32][33]

 

 

Scrap tires and environmental issues:

Once tires are discarded, they are considered scrap tires. Scrap tires are often re-used for things from bumper car barriers to weights to hold down tarps. Some facilities are permitted to recycle scrap tires through chipping, and processing into new products, or selling the material to licensed power plants for fuel. Some tires may also be retreaded for re-use. One group did "a study to evaluate the possibility of using scrap tires as a crash cushion system. The objective of this study was to evaluate the material properties of used tires and recycled tire-derived materials for use in low-cost, reusable crash cushions".[34]

Americans generate about 285 million scrap tires per year [35]. Many states have regulations as to the number of scrap tires that you may have on site, due to concerns with dumping, fire hazards, and mosquitoes. In the past, millions of tires have been discarded into open fields. This creates a breeding ground for mosquitoes, since the tires often hold water inside and remain warm enough for mosquito breeding. Mosquitoes create a nuisance and may increase the likelihood of spreading disease. It also creates a fire danger, since such a large tire pile is a lot of fuel. Some tire fires have burned for months, since water does not adequately penetrate or cool the burning tires. Tires have been known to liquefy, releasing hydrocarbons and other contaminants to the ground and even ground water, under extreme heat and temperatures from a fire. The black smoke from a tire fire causes air pollution and is a hazard to down wind properties.

The use of scrap tire chips for landscaping has become controversial, due to the leaching of metals and other contaminants from the tire pieces. Zinc is concentrated (up to 2% by weight) to levels high enough to be highly toxic to aquatic life and plants.[36] Of particular concern is evidence that some of the compounds that leach from tires into water, contain hormone disruptors and cause liver lesions.[37]

 

 

 

 

 

بکسل کردن ، یدک کشیدن ، بکسل ، یدک کشیtow                              

بکسل شدهon tow                                                              

وانت یدک کش / بکسل ، اتومبیل امداد خودروtow truck                     

(تایر اتومبیل) عاجtrack                                                              

traction

 

(تایر اتومبیل و دوچرخه) اصطکاک ، اصطکاک چرخ سطح اصطکاک

 

snow tires give the wheels better traction

 

تایر یخ شکن اصطکاک بهتری به چرخ ها می دهد

 

ترافیک ماشینtraffic                                                              

let’s go early to beat the traffic   

 

زود تر برویم که به ترافیک نخوریم

 

trailer

 

(اتاقک چرخدار که اتومبیل یا کامیون را به دنبال خود می کشد) ترک بند ، تریلر ، یدک کشیدن

 

 

treadعاج یا رویه ی تایر                                                               

تزیینات داخل و خارج اتومبیل ، تزیین  ، حاشیه دوزیtrim                        

(اتومبیل و غیره) دور زدنto turn                                                

it’s clear, you can turn

 

کسی نمی آید(منظور ماشین است) می تونی دور بزنی

 

to turn back(ماشین) سر و ته کردن و برگشتن                                  

the road was so dangerous that we turned back

 

جاده آنقدر خطرناک بود که برگشتیم

 

(صندلی اتومبیل) تو دوزیupholstery                                          

(مکانیک) سوپاپvalve                                                             

(خودمانی-جمع) اتومبیلwheel                                                   

at(or behind)the wheel

 

(اتومبیل یا قایق و غیره) پشت فرمان ، درحال رانندگی

 

بکسوات کردنto spin one’s wheels                                        

windshield

 

(اتومبیل و غیره) شیشه ی جلو( انگلیس :windscreen)

 

(اتومبیل) برف پاک کنwindshield /windscren wiper                           

if it were raining, we’d need our windshield wipers on and they do work fine

 

اگر در هنگام رانندگی باران بیاید ، لازم است که برف پاک کن ها روشن بشوند و خوب کار کنند

 

a windscreen wiper or windshield wiper is a device used to remove rain and debris from a windscreen or windshield. almost all motor vehicles, including trains, aircraft and watercraft, are equipped with such wipers, which are usually a legal requirement.

 

a wiper generally consists of an arm, pivoting at one end and with a long rubber blade attached to the other. the blade is swung back and forth over the glass, pushing water from its surface. the speed is normally adjustable, with several continuous speeds and often one or more "intermittent" settings. most automobiles use two synchronized radial type arms, while many commercial vehicles use one or more pantograph arms. Mercedes-Benz pioneered a system called the Monoblade in which a single wiper extends outward to get closer to the top corners, and pulls in at the ends and middle of the stroke, sweeping out a somewhat 'W'-shaped path.

 

 

برف پاک‌کن خودرو وسیله‌ای است که برای پاک کردن برف و باران و گاهی تمیز کردن شیشه خوردرو بکار می‌رود. برف پاک‌کن برای نخستین بار در سال ۱۹۰۸ میلادی از سوی پرنس هایتریش فن پروس به ثبت رسید و در طول یک سده، رفته رفته از یک وسیله پیش پا افتاده در خودروهای قدیمی، به وسیله‌ای پر اهمیت در خودروهای امروزی تبدیل شد.

البته حرکت قابل توجه در زمینه ظهور و پیدایش «برف پاک‌کن» به پنج سال پیش از آن باز می‌گشت، زمانی که یک انگلیسی به نام J.H. Apjohn بازوی پاک‌کننده‌ای را ساخت که قابل حرکت بود و به یک نقطه از قاب شیشه وصل می‌شد. مشکل اصلی طرح این مخترع انگلیسی این بود که این بازوی متحرک تنها می‌توانست بخشی از شیشه را تمیز کند.

در آغاز برف پاککن اتومبیل دستی بود، رفتهرفته خلائی و سپس در ۱۹۲۲ الکتریکی شد. قبل از اختراع برف پاککن نیمه بالای شیشه جلو را بر می‌داشتند تا راننده در موقع بارانی بودن هوادید کافی برای رانندگی داشته باشد.

Some larger cars are equipped with "hidden" (or "depressed-park") wipers. When wipers are switched off, a "parking" mechanism or circuit moves the wipers to the lower extreme of the wiped area, near the bottom of the windscreen, but still in sight. To hide the wipers, the windscreen extends below the rear edge of the hood, and the wipers park themselves below the wiping range at the bottom of the windscreen, but out of sight

 

Wipers may be powered by a variety of means, although most in existence today are powered by an electric motor through a series of mechanical components, typically two 4-bar linkages in series or parallel. Vehicles with air operated brakes sometimes use air operated wipers, run by bleeding a small amount of air pressure from the brake system to a small air operated motor mounted just above the windscreen. These wipers are activated by opening a valve which allows pressurized air to enter the motor

 

Early wipers were often driven by a vacuum motor powered by manifold vacuum. This had the drawback that manifold vacuum alters depending on throttle position and is almost non-existent under wide-open throttle; the wipers would slow down or even stop. This problem was overcome somewhat by using a combined fuel/vacuum booster pump. Some cars, mostly from the 1960s and 1970s, had hydraulically driven . On the earlier Citroën 2CV, the windscreen wipers were powered by a purely mechanical system: a cable connected to the transmission, to reduce cost this cable also powered the speedometer. The wipers' speed was therefore variable with car speed. When the car was waiting at a crossroad, the wipers were not powered, thus a handle under the speedometer allowed the driver to power them by hand.

Most windscreen wipers operate together with a windscreen (or windshield) washer; a pump that supplies water and detergent (usually a blend called windscreen wiper fluid) from a tank to the windscreen through small nozzles, mounted on the hood or on the wipers, known as a 'wet-arm' system. In warmer climates, water may also work, but it can freeze in colder climates. Although automobile antifreeze is chemically similar to windscreen wiper fluid, it must not be used because it can damage paint.

Inventor J. H. Apjohn devised a method of moving two brushes up and down on a vertical plate glass windscreen in 1903. Mary Anderson is said to have invented the windscreen wiper swinging arm in the United States, where she patented the idea in 1903. The idea was initially met with resistance, but was a standard feature on all American cars by 1916

In April 1911, a patent for windscreen wipers was registered by Sloan & Lloyd Barnes, patent agents of Liverpool, England, for Gladstone Adams of Whitley Bay. The first designs for the windscreen wiper are also credited to concert pianist Józef Hofmann, and Mills Munitions, Birmingham who also claimed to have been the first to patent windscreen wipers inEngland

 

 

(انگلیس- اتومبیل و دوچرخه و غیره) گلگیر(آمریکا :fender)wing             

(انگلیس- اتومبیل) آینه ی بغلwing mirror                                   

(انگلیس-اتومبیل و غیره) چراغ راهنما( آمریکا : blinker) winker              

wreckage

 

(اتومبیل و کشتی و غیره) آهن پاره ، لاشه ، بخش های اسقاط شده

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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